Notes on Renal-Urinary System

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Glomerulus:

• Ultrafiltration.

Bowman Capsule:

• Two layers: visceral and parietal.

• Visceral: consists of podocytes.

• Parietal: consists of simple squamous epithelium continuous with proximal convoluted tubule lining.

Proximal convoluted tubule:

• Apical brush border provides reabsorption.

Distal convoluted tubule:

• Cuboidal cells.

• Na/Cl ion reabsorption.

Collecting ducts/tubules:

• Cuboidal to columnar cells.

• Role in water conservation and urine concentration.

Kidney vascular supply:

• Kidney supplied by renal artery.

• Afferent/efferent arterioles supplied by interlobular arterioles.

Vasa recta = arteriolae rectae + venae rectae:

• Supplies medulla.

• Osmotic gradient maintenance.

Juxtaglomerular cells:

Secrete renin; renin converts angiotensinogen to angiotensin I; angiotensin II stimulate aldosterone release causing Na/H2O conservation.

Additional Notes:

• Nephron measures up to one inch in length; there are more than one million nephrons in each kidney.

• Nephron = renal corpuscle [glomerulus capillaries + Bowman's capsules] + renal tubule [proximal convoluted tubule + loop of Henle + distal convoluted tubule + collecting duct].

• Blood flows from afferent arterioles to glomerulus to Bowman's capsule (which acts as the collecting cup), and then into the loop of Henle, then into the renal calyces to renal pelvis to ureter to urinary bladder to urethra.

• Cortex houses the glomerulus of each nephron.

• Medulla houses the loops of Henle and collecting ducts.

• Mesangial cells = phagocytes and structural support in renal corpuscle; also produce erythropoietin.

• Renin secreted by juxtaglomerular cells.

• Aldosterone mainly acts on distal convoluted tubule.

• Columnar epithelium more common in male urethra.

• Most common site for kidney stone: point at which ureter passes over pelvic brim and common iliac artery.

Video on Basic Kidney Anatomy

Additional Reading:

Histology and Cytology

1. Cell Components
2. Nervous Tissue
3. Muscle Tissue
4. Lymphoid Tissue
5. Integument
6. Respiratory System
7. Gastrointestinal System
8. Renal/Urinary System
9. Male Reproductive System
10. Female Reproductive System

Gross Anatomy

1. Back and Nervous System
2. Thorax
3. Abdomen, Pelvis, and Perineum
4. Upper Limb
5. Lower Limb
6. Head and Neck
7. Chest Wall
8. Shoulder

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1. Video of HEENT Examination in a Clinical Setting

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