Anatomy of the Upper Limb

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Erb's palsy:

Injury in C5-C6; waiter's tip; weak shoulder and anterior arm; affected axillary, suprascapular, and musculocutaneous nerves.

Thoracic outlet syndrome:

Injury in C8-T1; weak forearm and hand muscles; claw hand; ape hand; may include Horner syndrome.

Nerves of the Upper Limbs:

Musculocutaneous nerve:

Flex elbow and supination; loss of elbow flexion; weak supination; loss of sensation on lateral aspect of forearm.

Median nerve:

Flex wrist and digits; pronation; opposition; flex metacarpophalangeal; extend proximal interphalangeal and distal interphalangeal of digits 2, 3.

Injury at elbow: loss of flexion of digits; ape or simian hand.

Injury at wrist: ape or simian hand; claw hand; carpal tunnel compression or wrist laceration.

Ulnar nerve:

Flex wrist and digits 4 and 5; abduct and adduct digits 2-5; flex metacarpophalangeal; extend proximal interphalangeal and distal interphalangeal of digits 4, 5.

Injury at elbow: weakened wrist flexion; claw hand; sensory loss of digits 5 and one half of 4.

Injury at wrist: loss of abduction and adduction of digits; claw hand; sensory loss on digits 5 and one half.

Axillary nerve:

Abduction and lateral rotation of shoulder; abduction of arm; damaged by shoulder dislocation or injury to surgical neck of humerus.

Radial nerve:

Injury at axilla: extend digits, wrist, and elbow; supination; Saturday night palsy; weakened extension of shoulder; sensory loss on posterior arm, forearm, and hand; wrist drop; damaged by shoulder dislocation.

Injury at arm: wrist drop.

Injury at wrist: sensory loss on posterior hand.

Arterial supply of upper arm:

• Subclavian artery, axillary artery, brachial artery, radial artery, ulnar nerve.

Volkmann contracture:

• Compression of brachial artery; ischemia of hand.

Elbow dislocation:

Injured ulnar nerve, median nerve, brachial artery.

Carpal Tunnel Syndrome:

Compressed median nerve.

Additional Notes:

• Latissimus dorsi paralyzed: cannot extend.

• Winged scapula: long thoracic nerve injury; can't do push-ups.

• Most commonly fractured hand bone: scaphoid.

• Most common obstetrical brachial plexus injury: C5, C6 which causes Erb's palsy.

Additional Reading:

Histology and Cytology

1. Cell Components
2. Nervous Tissue
3. Muscle Tissue
4. Lymphoid Tissue
5. Integument
6. Respiratory System
7. Gastrointestinal System
8. Renal/Urinary System
9. Male Reproductive System
10. Female Reproductive System

Gross Anatomy

1. Back and Nervous System
2. Thorax
3. Abdomen, Pelvis, and Perineum
4. Upper Limb
5. Lower Limb
6. Head and Neck
7. Chest Wall
8. Shoulder

Anatomy Videos

1. Video of Musculoskeletal Examination in a Clinical Setting
1. Video of HEENT Examination in a Clinical Setting

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1. Jugular Venous Distention Workup

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