Notes on Cerebellum

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Parts of the Cerebellum:

• Vermis: control of axial and proximal musculature of limbs.

• Intermediate hemisphere: control of distal musculature.

• Lateral hemisphere: control of motor planning.

• Flocculonodular lobe: balance and eye movements.

Cerebellum Communications:

• Inputs: inferior and middle cerebellar peduncles.

• Outputs: superior cerebellar peduncle.

Layers of the Cerebellum:

• Cortex and medulla.

• Cortex further subdivided into three more layers.

Operation:

Two excitatory signals enter the cerebellum:

• Climbing fibers: originate from inferior olivary complex of nuclei.

• Mossy fibers: represent all other cerebellar inputs.

• Purkinje cells are first excited from signals travelling through climbing fibers.

Cerebellar Areas and Cunctions:

• Flocculonodular lobe: changes position of eyes and trunk in response to changes in head position.

• Intermediate hemisphere: influences LMNs; posture and effect movements.

• Lateral hemisphere: influence LMNs; voluntary movements.

Lesions of Cerebellum:

• Vernal region: problems with posture, gait and balance.

• Hemisphere region: intention tremor, dysmetria, dysdiadochokinesia, scanning dysarthria, gaze dysfunction, and hypotonia.

Romberg Test:

• Patient sways with eyes closed: dorsal column lesion.

Vermal Lesion:

• Difficulty maintaining gait, balance, posture.

• Reduced ability to perform alternating movements, gaze dysfunction, hypotonia, speech dysfunction.

Cerebellar Lesion:

• Patient sways with eyes open.

• Intention tremor: patient asked to pick a coin, hand tremor increases as coin is approached.

Additional Notes:

• Inferior cerebellar peduncle also known as restiform body.

• Dentate nucleus: skilled voluntary movements.

• Fastigial nucleus: balance.

Additional Readings:

Basic Neurology

1. Peripheral Nervous System
2. Central Nervous System
3. The Ventricular System
4. The Spinal Cord
5. The Brain Stem
6. The Cerebellum
7. Visual Pathways
8. Diencephalon
9. Basal Ganglia
10. Cerebral Cortex
11. Sleep Disorders
12. Autonomic Nervous System
13. Cranial Nerves and Parasympathetic Ganglia
14. Cells of the Nervous System
15. Cerebrospinal fluid
16. Additional short notes on Cerebrum
17. Functions and Diseases of Cerebrum
18. Subcortical Grey Matter
19. Notes on The Spinal Cord
20. Regulation of Heart Rate by Autonomic Nervous System
21. Action Potentials, Axon Conduction, and Neuromuscular Junction
22. Types of Seizures
23. What is a Cough Reflex?
24. Notes on Congenital Prosopagnosia
25. Findings in Parkinson's Disease
26. Types of Heat Strokes
27. Types of Strokes
28. What is Benign Intracranial Hypertension?
29. What is Cauda Equina Syndrome?
30. Cranial Nerve Locations in Brain Stem

Neurology Videos

1. Video of Neurology Examination in a Clinical Setting

Medical Images

Useful Medical Images & Diagrams (link opens in a new window)

Related Topics

1. Nervous System Disorders
2. Histology of Nervous Tissue
3. Cranial Nerve Reflexes
4. Motor System Examination

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