Amino Acids, Proteins, Enzymes

  >   Rahul's Noteblog   >   Notes on Biochemistry   >   Amino Acids, Proteins, Enzymes

Positive Charged Amino Acids:

• Lysine, arginine, histidine.

Nonpolar Aliphatic Side-Chained Amino Acids:

• Glycine, alanine, valine, leucine, isoleucine, proline.

• "Products Like Glycine Are Very Insoluble [in water]."

Negative Charged Amino Acids:

• Aspartate, glutamate.

Polar Uncharged Amino Acids:

• Serine, threonine, cysteine, methionine, asparagine, glutamine.

• "Gee, These Molecules Are Completely Soluble [in water]."

Aromatic Side Chained Amino Acids:

• Phenylalanine, tyrosine, tryptophan.

Usage of Aromatic Side Chained Amino Acids:

• Phenylalanine and tyrosine form catecholamines.

• Tryptophan forms serotonin and niacin.

• Abnormal metabolism of valine, lecuine, and isoleucine causes Maple Syrup Urine Disease.


• Presence of hemoglobins in blood; detected using electrophoresis at pH 8.4; single amino acid substitutions are detected.

Sickle cell anemia:

• HbS = Abnormal protein substitution: valine for glutamate at position 6 in Hb = one less negative charge than HbA.

• HbC = substitution of lysine for glutamate at position 6; HbC will have two + charges compared to HbA. [C++]

• Protein charges detected through electrophoresis.

Essential Amino Acids:

• Arginine, histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan, valine.

• "PriVaTe TIM HALL."

Function of Ubiquitin:

• Defective or older proteins are tagged with ubiquitin for destruction.

Negative Nitrogen (loss) balance:

• Kwashiorkor, dietary deficiency of even one essential amino acid, starvation, diabetes, infection.

Positive Nitrogen (gain) balance:

• Growth, pregnancy, recovery from injury/surgery, recovery from negative N balance.

Michaelis-Menton Equation:

• Relates the rate to concentrations of substrate, enzyme, and product.

Additional Notes:

• Tyrosine forms fumarate.

• Arginine used to make NO.

• Ammonia stored as glutamine.

• Arginine: non-essential in adults and essential in children.

• Detergents: associate with non-polar residues and disrupt hydrophobic interactions.

• Heart-hand syndrome (Holt-Oram syndrome): heart and skeletal abnormalities; caused by TBX 5 transcription factor.

• Proline: mostly found in beta-turns of proteins.

• Glycine metabolism produces creatinine.

Additional Readings:

Basic Biochemistry

1. Nucleic Acid Structure and Organization
2. DNA Replication and Repair
3. Transcription and RNA Processing
4. Genetic Code, Mutations, and Translation
5. Genetic Regulation
6. Recombinant DNA
7. Amino Acids, Proteins, Enzymes
8. Hormones
9. Vitamins
10. Energy Metabolism
11. Glycolysis and Pyruvate Dehydrogenase
12. Citric Acid Cycle and Oxidative Phosphorylation
13. Glycogen, Gluconeogenesis, and Hexose Monophosphate Shunt
14. Lipid Synthesis and Storage
15. Lipid Mobilization and Catabolism
16. Amino Acid Metabolism Disorders
17. Purine and Pyrimidine Metabolism
18. Electron Transport
19. Citric Acid Cycle and Glyoxylate Cycle
20. Glycolysis
21. Pyruvate Metabolism
22. Mitochondrial ATP formation
23. Gluconeogenesis
24. Glycogen Metabolism
25. Nitrogen Fixation (Metabolism) reactions, and Heme Metabolism
26. Amino Acid Metabolism
27. What is Medium Chain Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency (MCADD)?

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