Locations of Heart Murmurs:

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Locations of heart murmurs on the chest wall:

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Additional notes:

• Diastolic murmur in the aortic area signifies aortic insufficiency. Management involves afterload reduction by ACE inhibitors.

• Normal mitral valvular area (MVA) ~ 4-6 cm2. Mild stenosis is when MVA is greater than ~1.5 cm2. Severe or moderate stenosis is when MVA is less than ~1.5 cm2.

Mild aortic stenosis is when AVA is greater than 1~1.5 cm2. Severe or moderate aortic stenosis is when AVA is less than ~1 cm2. NOTE: ACE-inhibitors - originally contraindicated in aortic stenosis - are eventually being prescribed.

Additional Reading:

Basic Cardiology

1. Electrical Activity of the Heart
2. Heart Muscle Mechanics
3. Heart Sounds and Murmurs
4. Additional FAQ on Heart Sounds and Murmurs
5. Cardiac Conduction Diagram
6. Blood Pressures in Cardiac Chambers
7. What is Pulsus Paradoxus?
8. FAQ on Heart Murmurs and Mechanisms of Turbulent Flow
9. Notes on Fetal Circulation
10. FAQ on Ischemic Myocardial Infarction
11. FAQ on Electrocardiograms / ECG / EKG
12. FAQ on Cardiac Conduction
13. The Heart as a Pump, the Cardiac cycle and Cardiac Output
14. What are the most common causes of aortic stenosis?
15. What is Pulseless Electrical Activity?
16. Causes and Complications of Arteriovenous Fistulas
17. CHADS2 Score for Atrial Fibrillation Stroke Risk
18. How to Reduce Blood Pressure without Medications?
19. Types of Shock
20. Locations of Heart Murmurs on Chest Wall
21. Types of Heart Blocks

Electrocardiogram (EKG/ECG) Topics

1. EKG Chest Leads
2. EKG Limb Leads
3. Quick 12-Lead ECG/EKG Format

Cardiology Videos

1. Video of Cardiology Examination in a Clinical Setting

Medical Images

Useful Medical Images & Diagrams (link opens in a new window)

Related Topics

1. Thorax Anatomy
2. Vascular Disorders
3. Heart Disorders
4. Histology of the Cardiovascular System
5. Jugular Venous Distention Workup
6. ER Chest Pain Workup
7. Cardiac Examination for Internal Medicine
8. FAQ on Blood Pressure
9. FAQ on principles of fluid and flow dynamics of Blood

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