Additional Notes on Cerebrum

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Cerebral Lobe Facts:

Parietal Lobe:

• Postcentral gyrus, which is the first general somatosensory area.

• Supramarginal and angular gyri include parts of receptive language.

• Perception and interpretation of spoken and written language.

Frontal Lobe:

• Precentral gyrus, which is the first motor area.

• Broca's expressive speech area, olfactory bulb and tract.

Temporal Lobe:

• Primary auditory area.

Occipital Lobe:

• The parahippocampal gyrus includes the uncus (olfaction) and entorhinal area (olfaction and memory).

Cerebral cortex functionality:


• Anterior inferior part of the parietal lobe and an adjacent region of the insula.


• Nearby parts of the insula and frontal operculum.

Movement of proximal joints:

• Premotor cortex.

Control of muscles, especially of the hands and face:

• Primary motor area of precentral gyrus.

Slower, involuntary eye movements:

• Parieto-occipital eye fields.

Gaze toward opposite sides:

• Ocular motor cortical areas.


• Left frontal lobe.

Receptive or sensory language area:

• Left temporoparietal cortex.

Awareness of positions and conditions of parts of the body, prosody and musical ability:

• Right cerebral cortex.

Judgment, foresight and social behavior:

• Frontal lobe.

Primary Sensory Areas:

• Parietal, occipital and temporal lobes are called sensory lobes because they contain primary sensory areas.

• Frontal lobe receives input from other lobes.

Parietal Lobe Lesion:

• Agnosia. Different types include cortical neglect, apraxia, tactile agnosia and astereognosis.

Tactile Agnosia and Astereognosis:

• Person can't identify a simple object in the hand with eyes closed.

Visual Cortex Lesion:

• Destructive lesion on striate cortex of a hemisphere causes blindness in opposite visual field.

Bilateral Lesion that involves superior parts of area 19:

• Visual disorientation with inability to recognize extent of visual field and to perceive moving objects.

Balint syndrome:

• Visual Disorientation, Ocular Apraxia, Optic Ataxia.

Lesion in occipital cortex inferior to primary visual area:

• Acquired achromatopsia; loss of color vision in contralateral halves of visual fields in both eyes.

Inferolateral Surface of Temporal Lobe:

• Storage or recall of visual memories.

Destruction of Inferior Surfaces of Occipital and Temporal Lobes:

• Apperceptive visual agnosia, prosopagnosia.

Anterior Part of Temporal Lobe:

• Memories of objects seen, music heard and other experiences.

Motor Cortex Lesions:

• Flaccid muscles if precentral gyrus damaged.

Lesion in Premotor Area:

• Impaired movement. Termed apraxia.

Prefrontal Cortex Lesion:

• Person with bilateral loss of function of the prefrontal cortex (Brodmann's areas 9 to 12) becomes rude and inconsiderate to others.

• Medical and ventral parts of prefrontal cortex associated with acceptable social behavior.

Right vs Left Hemisphere:

• Mostly, language is the function of the left hemisphere.

• Right hemisphere is used in 3D, or spatial perception.

Additional Reading:

Basic Neurology

1. Peripheral Nervous System
2. Central Nervous System
3. The Ventricular System
4. The Spinal Cord
5. The Brain Stem
6. The Cerebellum
7. Visual Pathways
8. Diencephalon
9. Basal Ganglia
10. Cerebral Cortex
11. Sleep Disorders
12. Autonomic Nervous System
13. Cranial Nerves and Parasympathetic Ganglia
14. Cells of the Nervous System
15. Cerebrospinal fluid
16. Additional short notes on Cerebrum
17. Functions and Diseases of Cerebrum
18. Subcortical Grey Matter
19. Notes on The Spinal Cord
20. Regulation of Heart Rate by Autonomic Nervous System
21. Action Potentials, Axon Conduction, and Neuromuscular Junction
22. Types of Seizures
23. What is a Cough Reflex?
24. Notes on Congenital Prosopagnosia
25. Findings in Parkinson's Disease
26. Types of Heat Strokes
27. Types of Strokes
28. What is Benign Intracranial Hypertension?
29. What is Cauda Equina Syndrome?
30. Cranial Nerve Locations in Brain Stem

Neurology Videos

1. Video of Neurology Examination in a Clinical Setting

Medical Images

Useful Medical Images & Diagrams (link opens in a new window)

Related Topics

1. Nervous System Disorders
2. Histology of Nervous Tissue
3. Cranial Nerve Reflexes
4. Motor System Examination

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