Findings in Parkinson's Disease

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Tremor:

• A resting 4-6 Hz tremor with a "rolling pill" quality.

• Frequently first manifests in one hand, then slowly involves the other side of the body and lower extremities.

Rigidity:

• Baseline increased resistance to passive movement about a joint which may be uniform (lead pipe) or oscillating (cogwheel).

Bradykinesia:

• Difficulty initiating movements - like starting to walk or rising from a chair.

• Narrow-based, shuffling (hypokinetic gait) gait with short strides and without arm swing (festinating gait).

• Macrographia (small handwriting).

• Hypomimia (decreased facial expression).

• Hypophonia (soft speech).

Postural Instability:

• Flexed axial posture.

• Loss of balance during turning or stopping.

• Loss of balance when pused slightly from a stationary bipedal stance.

• Frequent falls.

Treatment:

Trihexyphenidyl, benztropine, levodopa, carbidopa, amantadine, apomorphine, bromocriptine, pramipexole, ropinirole, entacapone, tolcapone, selegiline.

Additional Reading:

Basic Neurology

1. Peripheral Nervous System
2. Central Nervous System
3. The Ventricular System
4. The Spinal Cord
5. The Brain Stem
6. The Cerebellum
7. Visual Pathways
8. Diencephalon
9. Basal Ganglia
10. Cerebral Cortex
11. Sleep Disorders
12. Autonomic Nervous System
13. Cranial Nerves and Parasympathetic Ganglia
14. Cells of the Nervous System
15. Cerebrospinal fluid
16. Additional short notes on Cerebrum
17. Functions and Diseases of Cerebrum
18. Subcortical Grey Matter
19. Notes on The Spinal Cord
20. Regulation of Heart Rate by Autonomic Nervous System
21. Action Potentials, Axon Conduction, and Neuromuscular Junction
22. Types of Seizures
23. What is a Cough Reflex?
24. Notes on Congenital Prosopagnosia
25. Findings in Parkinson's Disease
26. Types of Heat Strokes
27. Types of Strokes
28. What is Benign Intracranial Hypertension?
29. What is Cauda Equina Syndrome?
30. Cranial Nerve Locations in Brain Stem
31. What is a Cluster Headache?
32. What is a Subarachnoid Hemorrhage?
33. What is a Tension Headache?

Neurology Videos

1. Video of Neurology Examination in a Clinical Setting

Medical Images

Useful Medical Images & Diagrams (link opens in a new window)

Related Topics

1. Nervous System Disorders
2. Histology of Nervous Tissue
3. Cranial Nerve Reflexes
4. Motor System Examination

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