Neurons of the Autonomic System

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Neurons of the Autonomic System:

The autonomic neurons are predominantly responsible for the involuntary regulation of the heart, smooth muscle and glands. This control is essential to maintain homeostasis and life.

Divisions:

Neurons are divided into preganglionic and postganglionic neurons. Is under involuntary control. Preganglionic fibres are sited in the midbrain and hindbrain, and T1-S4 of the spinal cord.

1. Sympathetic system: Short pre - and long postganglionic fibres.

2. Parasympathetic system: Long pre - and short postganglionic fibres.

3. Main innervation: Smooth muscle, heart muscle and glands.

4. Autonomic ganglia: are sited in the head, neck, and abdomen.

5. Sympathetic chain: lies on both sides of the thoracic and lumbar vertebra.

General Functions:

1. Functions at a subconscious level, but is strongly influenced by higher integrative levels i.e. hypothalamus.

2. Integration of cardiac function.

3. Control of GUT movement i.e. smooth (visceral) muscle.

4. Integrates secretion of various glands (i.e. enteric, endocrine).

5. Regulation of visceral organs and blood vessels.

Further Topics on Autonomic Nervous System:

1. Introduction to the Autonomic Nervous System
2. Control of the Autonomic Nervous System
3. Divisions the Autonomic Nervous System
4. Notes on Sympathetic Nervous System
5. Notes on Paraympathetic Nervous System
6. Neurons of the Autonomic Nervous System
7. Neurotransmitters and Receptors of the Autonomic Nervous System
8. FAQ on Autonomic System

Additional Reading:

Basic Neurology

1. Peripheral Nervous System
2. Central Nervous System
3. The Ventricular System
4. The Spinal Cord
5. The Brain Stem
6. The Cerebellum
7. Visual Pathways
8. Diencephalon
9. Basal Ganglia
10. Cerebral Cortex
11. Sleep Disorders
12. Autonomic Nervous System
13. Cranial Nerves and Parasympathetic Ganglia
14. Cells of the Nervous System
15. Cerebrospinal fluid
16. Additional short notes on Cerebrum
17. Functions and Diseases of Cerebrum
18. Subcortical Grey Matter
19. Notes on The Spinal Cord
20. Regulation of Heart Rate by Autonomic Nervous System
21. Action Potentials, Axon Conduction, and Neuromuscular Junction
22. Types of Seizures
23. What is a Cough Reflex?
24. Notes on Congenital Prosopagnosia
25. Findings in Parkinson's Disease
26. Types of Heat Strokes
27. Types of Strokes
28. What is Benign Intracranial Hypertension?
29. What is Cauda Equina Syndrome?
30. Cranial Nerve Locations in Brain Stem
31. What is a Cluster Headache?
32. What is a Subarachnoid Hemorrhage?
33. What is a Tension Headache?

Neurology Videos

1. Video of Neurology Examination in a Clinical Setting

Medical Images

Useful Medical Images & Diagrams (link opens in a new window)

Related Topics

1. Nervous System Disorders
2. Histology of Nervous Tissue
3. Cranial Nerve Reflexes
4. Motor System Examination

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