Synthesis and Deficiencies of Adrenal Hormones

  >   Rahul's Noteblog   >   Notes on Endocrinology   >   Synthesis and Deficiencies of Adrenal Hormones

Rate-Limiting Step of Adrenal Hormone Synthesis:

Rate-limiting step: desmolase converts cholesterol to pregnenolone; this is also the starting point.

Zone glomerulosa:

• Angiotensin II promotes synthesis.

• Pregnenolone to progesterone to 11-deoxycorticosterone to corticosterone to anderosterone.

Zona fasciculata and zona reticularis:

hormone synthesis in adrenal glands

Adrenal Enzyme deficiencies:

21-beta-hydroxylase deficiency:

• Causes decreased aldosterone in zona glomerulosa.

Effect in the zona fasciculata and zona reticularis:

• Decreased mineralocorticoids (decreased Na/ECF/low BP) and glucocorticoids (increased ACTH/androgen).

• In 21-hydroxylase deficiency, cortisol and aldosterone production is below normal level and this prompts the anterior pituitary to secrete large amounts of ACTH in order to increase production of cortisol. However, the increased ACTH production is being channeled to make more androgen. Hence, in 21-hydroxylase deficiency, you'll see a young child with increased height and growth of pubic hair.

11 beta-hydroxylase deficiency:

Effect in the zona fasciculata and zona reticularis:

• Excessive androgen; increased BP.

• Causes decreased aldosterone in zona glomerulosa.

17 alpha-hydroxylase deficiency:

Effect in zona fasciculata and zona reticularis:

• Increased BP due to increased ACTH.

Effect in testes:

• Decreased testosterone.

Effect in ovaries:

• Decreased estrogens.

Additional Readings:

Basic Endocrinology

1. Introduction to Endocrinology
2. Hypothalamic-pituitary system
3. Adrenal Hormones
4. Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH) and ECF Regulation
5. Endocrine Pancreas
6. Growth Hormone
7. Adrenal Medulla
8. Hormonal Control of Calcium and Phosphate
9. Thyroid Hormones
10. Hormones of Male Reproduction
11. Hormones of Female Reproduction
12. Fluid Compartments of the Body
13. Notes on Hypothalamus Anterior Pituitary and Thyroid
14. Additional Notes on Female Reproduction
15. Hormonal Signaling Pathways
16. FAQ on Adrenal Hormones
17. FAQ on Male Reproduction
18. Synthesis and Deficiencies of Adrenal Hormones
19. Significance of Glycosylated Hemoblogin (HbA1c)
20. Significance of Measuring Albumin while with Calcium Levels
21. Stepwise Approach to Treatment of Ascites
22. How to differentiate between Diabetes Insipidus vs Psychogenic Polydipsia

Related Topics

1. Histology of the Endocrine System
2. Histology of the Male Reproductive System
3. Histology of the Female Reproductive System

Medical Images

Useful Medical Images & Diagrams (link opens in a new window)

Random Pages:

Why I Support Mercy Killing How To Optimize Your Web Server
Video of me playing Ludwig van Beethoven - "Moonlight Sonata" (1st Movement) Notes on Male Reproductive System
Notes on Development of the Breast Notes on Bacteriodes and Prevotella
Notes on Pyruvate Metabolism Notes on Hypothesis Testing
FAQ on Adrenal Hormones Diagram of Gastric Blood Supply
Notes on Basic Gastrointestinal Physiology My Experience during the Iraqi Invasion of Kuwait
Review of eBoundhost VPS hosting What is an ELEK`s Test?
Why did I decide to become a doctor? Medical School Admissions Essay Video: Titanic Piano Theme: The Portrait
Corporate Failure: The Enron Case My Experience during the Iraqi Invasion of Kuwait
USMLE Blood Lab Values Regulation of Heart Rate by Autonomic Nervous System
Images of Antibodies Video of me playing Yanni`s "Nightingale"
Notes on Nervous Tissue Differentiation and Anatomy of a Blastocyst
Notes on Cell Components Notes on Nervous Tissue
Voices from Hell: My Experience in Mussoorie, India Video of Cardiology Examination in a Clinical Setting

Please Do Not Reproduce This Page

This page is written by Rahul Gladwin. Please do not duplicate the contents of this page in whole or part, in any form, without prior written permission.