Notes on Salmonella

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Genus: Salmonella.

• Enterobacteriacea.

• Non-lactose fermenting, G- motile rod.


• Enteric or typhoid fever. (Salmonella thypi).

• Septicemia.

• Gastroenteritis.

Salmonella thypi.

• Highly-motile Gram - rods with Vi capsule.

• Facultative anaerobe, non-lactose fermenting.

• Produces H2S.

• Acid sensitive.

• Found in humans only.

• Fecal-oral spread from people with infected gall-bladders.

• Increased stomach pH; impaired mononuclear cells as in sickle cell anemia.


Typhoid/enteric fever:

• Ingested organism begins infection in ileocecal region; constipation.

• Reaches mesenteric lymph nodes and blood.

• First week: positive cultures and rose spots on trunk and abdomen.

• Liver/spleen infected; septicemia.

• Resistant to macrophage killing.

• Defensins and impaired phagosome-lysosome fusion prevent its killing.

• Biliary system infected.

• Fever, headache, abdominal pain, constipation.

• Necrosis of Peyer's patches.


• Ciprofloxacin or ceftriaxone; use sanitation.

Salmonella enteritidis, Salmonella typhimurium.

• Highly-motile Gram - rods with Vi capsule.

• Facultative anaerobe, non-lactose fermenting.

• Produces H2S.

• Grow on EMB of MacConkey agar.

• O, Vi, H antigens present in blood; detect by Widal test.


• Found in chickens and turtles.

Transmitted by:

• Transmitted by eating raw chicken and eggs.


• No endotoxin.

• Mucosal invasion; diarrhea and shallow ulceration.



• Nausea, fever, abdominal pain, vomiting, abdominal pain, myalgia, headache, loose stools, septicemia, osteomyelitis (salmonella: most common cause of osteomyelitis in sickle cell patients).


• Antibiotics, but not effective.

Additional Readings:

Basic Bacteriology

1. Bacterial Locations and Toxins
2. Growth Medias and Oxygen Requirements
3. Staphylococus
4. Streptococcus
5. Enterococcus
6. Bacillus
7. Listeria
8. Corynebacterium
9. Actinomyces
10. Nocadria
11. Mycobacterium
12. Clostridium
13. Neisseria
14. Pseudomonas
15. Legionella
16. Bordetella
17. Francisella
18. Brucella
19. Campylobacter
20. Escherichia
21. Shigella
22. Klebsiella
23. Salmonella
24. Yersinia
25. Proteus
26. Vibrio
27. Pasteurella
28. Haemophilus
29. Bacteriodes and Prevotella
30. Treponema
31. Borrelia
32. Rickettsia
33. Coxiella
34. Ehrlichia
35. Chlamydia
36. Mycoplasma
37. What is an ELEK's Test?
38. Causes of Orchitis
39. What is Leprosy?
40. What is Folliculitis?
41. What is Botulism?
42. How to interpret PPD (Purified Protein Derivative) results?
43. Prenatal Infections

Related Topics

1. Bacterial vs viral infections

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