Random USMLE Facts volume 5-8

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Random USMLE Facts volume 5-8:

USMLE Facts 1 USMLE Facts 2 USMLE Facts 3 USMLE Facts 4 USMLE Facts 5
USMLE Facts 6 USMLE Facts 7 USMLE Facts 8 USMLE Facts 9 USMLE Facts 10

What is a venous admixture?

Blood in the left atrium has lower oxygen content than pulmonary arteries and this is caused due to the venous admixture of deoxygenated bronchial blood and blood in pulmonary veins.

How is serum CEA related to colorectal cancer?

Serum CEA is a sensitive indicator of colorectal cancer recurrence.

• Minute ventilation = tidal volume x breaths/minute.
• Alveolar ventilation = [tidal volume - dead space] x breaths/minute.

What is the most common cause of endocarditis in IV drug users?

S. aureus; complication may include hemorrhagic pulmonary infarcts from septic embolization from the tricuspid valve to a distal pulmonary artery.

What organism from Arizona (ie., southwest United States) makes endospores?

Coccidioides immitis.

In a duodenal ulcer, damage to what artery causes significant upper GI bleeding?

Gastroduodenal artery.

What would be an example of a polycistronic mRNA?

Lac operon - one mRNA encodes multiple proteins.

Is dermatitis herpetiformis related to celiac disease?


What is the most serious complication of patients with acute tubular necrosis?


While the abdominal wall grows slowly in the fetus, what causes the liver and the intestine to develop rapidly?

The midgut herniates through the umbilical ring at 6th week of development. The midgut then returns to abdominal cavity at the 10th week, while doing a 270 degree counterclockwise rotation around the superior mesenteric artery. However, this rotation may go wrong causing midgut volvus with intestine gangrene and perforation with other complications. Findings may include bilious vomiting.

What kind of vaccine is the rabies vaccine?

Killed vaccine.

What happens when a cholinomimetic agent binds to a muscarinic agonist?

One of the things that happens is the release of nitric oxide (NO) also called endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF).

What effect do corticosteroids have on collagen?

Corticosteroids decrease the production of extracellular matrix collagen and glycosaminoglycans, and this results in dermal atrophy.

What kind of proteinuria occurs in minimal change disease?

Minimal change disease occurs in children after an upper respiratory infection. Proteinuria is selective (loss of albumin only); since there is loss of negatively charged particles in the glomerular basement membrane (which is originally negatively charged), this loss destroys the negative-negative repulsion between GBM and albumin.

What is the cause of neurogenic detrusor spasticity?

This is a cause of increased urinary frequency due to stimulation of the bladder wall with minimal stretching. neurogenic detrusor spasticity occurs due to damage to sympathetic neurons from the spinal levels of T11-L2 (which inhibit the detrusor muscle).

What ions contribute to the resting membrane potential of cells?

Ions with the greatest permeability contribute, hence, high potassium conductance and some sodium conductance.

What is the best indicator of severity of mitral regurgitation?

S3 heart sound.

What exactly is the function and mechanism of aldosterone?

Aldosterone acts on principal and intercalated cells to promote resorption of sodium and water, and excretion of potassium and hydrogen ion. See: Notes on Adrenal Hormones

USMLE Facts 1 USMLE Facts 2 USMLE Facts 3 USMLE Facts 4 USMLE Facts 5
USMLE Facts 6 USMLE Facts 7 USMLE Facts 8 USMLE Facts 9 USMLE Facts 10

Additional Readings:

Random USMLE Facts

1. Random USMLE Facts volume 1-1
2. Random USMLE Facts volume 2-1
3. Random USMLE Facts volume 3-1
4. Random USMLE Facts volume 4-1
5. Random USMLE Facts volume 5-1
6. Random USMLE Facts volume 6-1
7. Random USMLE Facts volume 7-1
8. Random USMLE Facts volume 8-1
9. Random USMLE Facts volume 9-1
10. Random USMLE Facts volume 10-1
11. Random USMLE Facts volume 11-1
12. Random USMLE Facts volume 12-1

General and Systemic Examinations

1. General Examination for Internal Medicine
2. Jugular Venous Distention Workup
3. ER Chest Pain Workup
4. Format for Patient Presentation
5. Pulmonary Examination for Internal Medicine
6. Cardiac Examination for Internal Medicine
7. Abdominal Examination for Internal Medicine
8. Cranial Nerve Reflexes
9. Motor System Examination
10. Random Sensory System Facts
11. Random Stroke Facts

Medical Files & Presentations

1. USMLE Flashcards [Size: 1.9 MB; Format: MS Powerpoint]
2. Otitis Media in Children [Size: 5.4 MB; Format: MS Powerpoint]
3. Irritable Bowel Syndrome [Size: 170 kB; Format: MS Powerpoint]
4. Acid-Base Disturbance: Acidotic or Alkalotic? [Size: 427 kB; Format: PDF]
5. Thrombocytopenia [Size: 2.42 MB; Format: MS Powerpoint]
6. Are Face Transplants Ethical? [Size: 70.2 kB; Format: MS Powerpoint]

USMLE Step 2 CS Videos

1. Video of Cardiology Examination in a Clinical Setting
2. Video of Neurology Examination in a Clinical Setting
3. Video of Pulmonology Examination in a Clinical Setting
4. Video of Musculoskeletal Examination in a Clinical Setting
5. Video of Abdominal Examination in a Clinical Setting
6. Video of HEENT Examination in a Clinical Setting
7. Video and Description of Rinne Hearing Test
8. Video and Description of Weber Hearing Test

USMLE Laboratory (lab) Values

1. USMLE Blood Lab Values
2. USMLE Cerebrospinal Lab Values
3. USMLE Hematologic Lab Values
4. USMLE Sweat and Urine Lab Values

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Useful Medical Images & Diagrams (link opens in a new window)

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