Random USMLE Facts volume 5-9

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Random USMLE Facts volume 5-9:

USMLE Facts 1 USMLE Facts 2 USMLE Facts 3 USMLE Facts 4 USMLE Facts 5
USMLE Facts 6 USMLE Facts 7 USMLE Facts 8 USMLE Facts 9 USMLE Facts 10

What is the significance of the lecithin-sphingomyelin ratio in the fetus?

The lecithin-sphingomyelin ratio is an indicator of lung maturity. Secretion of cortisol has the greatest effect on the lecithin-sphingomyelin ratio because cortisol plays an important role in lung maturation.

How is newly transcribed rRNA handled in the cytoplasm before it is translated?

Addition of the 7-methylguanosine to the 5' end of the mRNA takes place in the cytoplasm.

What are some short acting benzodiazepines?

Alprazolam, Triazolam, Oxazepam, and Midazolam. Also note that short-acting benzodiazepines have the highest addictive potential.

What findings are very specific for Grave's disease?

Infiltrative dermopathy (also called pretibial myxedem) and proptosis.

What is the mechanism of action of digoxin?

Inhibition of Na/K/ATPase, causing increased intracellular sodium, resulting in increased cardiac output and lowered right atrial pressure and lowered pulmonary wedge pressure.

What is the best indicator of alveolar ventilation?

Arterial PaCO2 is the best indicator of alveolar ventilation. Decreased arterial PaCO2 is an indicator of alveolar hyperventilation, while increased arterial PaCO2 is an indicator of alveolar hypoventilation.

What are vasopeptide inhibitors? What are some side effects?

These drugs inhibit ACE and inhibit degradation of ANP. One possible side-effect is angioedema because ACE destroy kinins (which cause angioedema) and destroying ACE would increase kinins causing angioedema.

How will the oxygen-hemoglobin disassociation curve shift when individual subunits of the hemoglobin molecules are separated?

If the individual subunits of the hemoglobin molecules are separated, the oxygen-hemoglobin disassociation curve will be similar to that of myoglobin, i.e., it will shift to the left.

What vitamin would be beneficial in a measles infection?

Vitamin A.

What are some findings in Staphylococcal Scalded Skin Syndrome (SSS)?

Poor feeding and irritability in infant, diffuse skin erythema; skin comes off easily with gentle pressure. This is caused by S. aureus exotoxin-mediated skin damage.

What are some findings in uncreative colitis?

• Rectum is always involved.
• Inflammation is limited to mucosa and submucosa.
• Mucosal damage is continuous.
• Think IUPAC = inflammation, ulceration, pseudopolyps, abscesses, and colon.

What glands of the GI tract secrete the most alkaline secretions?

Brunner glands of the duodenum.

What is the difference between positive-sense and negative-sense RNA viruses?

Positive-sense RNA viruses are ready-to-go, i.e., they're "just like mRNA" and will be immediately translated using the cell's own molecular machinery. On the other hand, negative-sense RNA viruses must carry their own RNA-dependent-RNA-polymerase which will change them from negative-sense to positive-sense RNA, which can then be easily translated. Hence, infections by positive-sense RNA viruses have a short latency period because they use the host's replication machinery.

What types of viruses infect hosts, and use the hosts own intracellular machinery for translation?

Single stranded positive sense RNA virus.

What types of bacteria fail to decolorize with hydrochloric acid and alcohol after staining with carbolfuchisn?

Acid-fast bacteria - e.g., mycobacterium.

What enzyme works in the cytosol?


USMLE Facts 1 USMLE Facts 2 USMLE Facts 3 USMLE Facts 4 USMLE Facts 5
USMLE Facts 6 USMLE Facts 7 USMLE Facts 8 USMLE Facts 9 USMLE Facts 10

Additional Readings:

Random USMLE Facts

1. Random USMLE Facts volume 1-1
2. Random USMLE Facts volume 2-1
3. Random USMLE Facts volume 3-1
4. Random USMLE Facts volume 4-1
5. Random USMLE Facts volume 5-1
6. Random USMLE Facts volume 6-1
7. Random USMLE Facts volume 7-1
8. Random USMLE Facts volume 8-1
9. Random USMLE Facts volume 9-1
10. Random USMLE Facts volume 10-1
11. Random USMLE Facts volume 11-1
12. Random USMLE Facts volume 12-1

General and Systemic Examinations

1. General Examination for Internal Medicine
2. Jugular Venous Distention Workup
3. ER Chest Pain Workup
4. Format for Patient Presentation
5. Pulmonary Examination for Internal Medicine
6. Cardiac Examination for Internal Medicine
7. Abdominal Examination for Internal Medicine
8. Cranial Nerve Reflexes
9. Motor System Examination
10. Random Sensory System Facts
11. Random Stroke Facts

Medical Files & Presentations

1. USMLE Flashcards [Size: 1.9 MB; Format: MS Powerpoint]
2. Otitis Media in Children [Size: 5.4 MB; Format: MS Powerpoint]
3. Irritable Bowel Syndrome [Size: 170 kB; Format: MS Powerpoint]
4. Acid-Base Disturbance: Acidotic or Alkalotic? [Size: 427 kB; Format: PDF]
5. Thrombocytopenia [Size: 2.42 MB; Format: MS Powerpoint]
6. Are Face Transplants Ethical? [Size: 70.2 kB; Format: MS Powerpoint]

USMLE Step 2 CS Videos

1. Video of Cardiology Examination in a Clinical Setting
2. Video of Neurology Examination in a Clinical Setting
3. Video of Pulmonology Examination in a Clinical Setting
4. Video of Musculoskeletal Examination in a Clinical Setting
5. Video of Abdominal Examination in a Clinical Setting
6. Video of HEENT Examination in a Clinical Setting
7. Video and Description of Rinne Hearing Test
8. Video and Description of Weber Hearing Test

USMLE Laboratory (lab) Values

1. USMLE Blood Lab Values
2. USMLE Cerebrospinal Lab Values
3. USMLE Hematologic Lab Values
4. USMLE Sweat and Urine Lab Values

Medical Images

Useful Medical Images & Diagrams (link opens in a new window)

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