Random USMLE Facts volume 3-2

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Random USMLE Facts volume 3-2:

USMLE Facts 1 USMLE Facts 2 USMLE Facts 3 USMLE Facts 4 USMLE Facts 5
USMLE Facts 6 USMLE Facts 7 USMLE Facts 8 USMLE Facts 9 USMLE Facts 10

What is the relation between oxygen affinity of hemoglobin and the pO2?

At low pO2, the hemoglobin molecule is fully deoxygenated. However, as pO2 increases, the hemoglobin molecule's affinity for oxygen increases. When pO2 increases higher and higher, the oxygen affinity of hemoglobin also increases then it levels off.

Now, the more the pCO2 in blood (and decrease in pH), the easier it becomes for hemoglobin to release oxygen. Furthermore, the more the proton concentration, the easier it is for hemoglobin to shed O2 (and vice-versa).

Describe the operation of VZV infection:

VZV infection causes chickenpox and shingles. First, the infection begins through the respiratory route causing chickenpox in children. The virus then travels via the sensory fibers to the dorsal root ganglia of the spinal cord where it remains latent for years. In a shingles infection, light microscopy shows intranuclear inclusions in keratinocytes and multinucleate giant cells.

What is Kallmann's syndrome?

Kallmann's syndrome results from failure of GnRH-secreting neurons to migrate to the hypothalamus. Patients present with hypogonadism and anosmia.

Which drug is commonly used for rapid sequence induction?

A depolarizing neuromuscular junction (NMJ) blocking drug - because the action is more rapid. Furthermore, the paralytic effect doesn't wear off easily even after administrating an anticholinesterase. In fact, anticholinesterases actually enhance the effects of depolarizing NMJ blockers. An example of a depolarizing neuromuscular junction (NMJ) blocking drug would be succnylcholine; an example of an anticholinesterase would be vecuronium.

What is isolated systolic hypertension?

Isolated systolic hypertension is common among elderly where systolic pressure is elevated and diastolic pressure is not (eg., 170/70) . Treatment would be thiazide diuretics and dihydropyridine calcium antagonists.

What is amlodipine and what are its side-effects?

Amlodipine is used to treat isolated systolic hypertension in the elderly. Side-effects would include edema and flushing.

What are the findings in Goodpasture syndrome?

Hypertension, hematuria, RPGN, crescent formation; there may also be pulmonary hemorrhage (hemoptysis). This happens due to IgG and IgM binding to alpha-3 chain of type II collagen.

What enzyme breaks down penicillins? What organism secrets this enzyme?

B-lactamase secreted by bacteriods - Gram - anaerobic rods. Best treatment would be piperacillin tazobactam.

What are the findings and treatment for arsenic poisoning?

Garlic breath, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, bloody diarrhea. Give dimercaprol.

Which anti-gouty arthritis drug causes diarrhea and mild nausea?

Colchicine; it acts on cytoskeleton.

What is administered for anaphylactic shock?

Findings in anaphylactic shock include difficulty breathing, nusea, light-headednesss, abdominal cramps, and hypotension. Give epinephrine.

What is the action of epinephrine?

Vasodilatation, increasing cardiac output, and improved peripheral perfusion.

What is the direction of norepinephrine?

Vasoconstriction.

What is the direct action of dobutamine?

Only increase cardiac output.

What is the usage for diphenhydramine?

It is used to treat patients with anaphylactic shock who have already been stabilized by epinephrine.

What is the mechanism of action and usage of dofetilide?

Used for atrial fibrillation. It is a class III antiarrhythmic that slows potassium outflow.

USMLE Facts 1 USMLE Facts 2 USMLE Facts 3 USMLE Facts 4 USMLE Facts 5
USMLE Facts 6 USMLE Facts 7 USMLE Facts 8 USMLE Facts 9 USMLE Facts 10

Additional Readings:

Random USMLE Facts

1. Random USMLE Facts volume 1-1
2. Random USMLE Facts volume 2-1
3. Random USMLE Facts volume 3-1
4. Random USMLE Facts volume 4-1
5. Random USMLE Facts volume 5-1
6. Random USMLE Facts volume 6-1
7. Random USMLE Facts volume 7-1
8. Random USMLE Facts volume 8-1
9. Random USMLE Facts volume 9-1
10. Random USMLE Facts volume 10-1
11. Random USMLE Facts volume 11-1
12. Random USMLE Facts volume 12-1

General and Systemic Examinations

1. General Examination for Internal Medicine
2. Jugular Venous Distention Workup
3. ER Chest Pain Workup
4. Format for Patient Presentation
5. Pulmonary Examination for Internal Medicine
6. Cardiac Examination for Internal Medicine
7. Abdominal Examination for Internal Medicine
8. Cranial Nerve Reflexes
9. Motor System Examination
10. Random Sensory System Facts
11. Random Stroke Facts

Medical Files & Presentations

1. USMLE Flashcards [Size: 1.9 MB; Format: MS Powerpoint]
2. Otitis Media in Children [Size: 5.4 MB; Format: MS Powerpoint]
3. Irritable Bowel Syndrome [Size: 170 kB; Format: MS Powerpoint]
4. Acid-Base Disturbance: Acidotic or Alkalotic? [Size: 427 kB; Format: PDF]
5. Thrombocytopenia [Size: 2.42 MB; Format: MS Powerpoint]
6. Are Face Transplants Ethical? [Size: 70.2 kB; Format: MS Powerpoint]

USMLE Step 2 CS Videos

1. Video of Cardiology Examination in a Clinical Setting
2. Video of Neurology Examination in a Clinical Setting
3. Video of Pulmonology Examination in a Clinical Setting
4. Video of Musculoskeletal Examination in a Clinical Setting
5. Video of Abdominal Examination in a Clinical Setting
6. Video of HEENT Examination in a Clinical Setting
7. Video and Description of Rinne Hearing Test
8. Video and Description of Weber Hearing Test

USMLE Laboratory (lab) Values

1. USMLE Blood Lab Values
2. USMLE Cerebrospinal Lab Values
3. USMLE Hematologic Lab Values
4. USMLE Sweat and Urine Lab Values

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