Random USMLE Facts volume 3-1

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Random USMLE Facts volume 3-1:

USMLE Facts 1 USMLE Facts 2 USMLE Facts 3 USMLE Facts 4 USMLE Facts 5
USMLE Facts 6 USMLE Facts 7 USMLE Facts 8 USMLE Facts 9 USMLE Facts 10

What is Trousseau syndrome?

This is migratory thrombophlebitis with cancer, most likely, pancreatic cancer. Thrombophlebitis may occur as deep venous thrombosis can cause pain and selling in the lower extremities. Other cancers what cause Trousseau syndrome include lung, colon, and gastric cancer.

What is Friedreich ataxia?

It is a neurodegenerative condition caused by mutated trinucleotide repeats. Several types of neurons are degenerated, especially those of the dorsal root ganglia. Patients present with ataxia, dysarthira, loss of discriminatory sensory modalities in the first decade of life. Friedreich ataxia is a perfect example of trans-synaptic degeneration, which occurs when nucleus in the CNS degenerates. Ipsilateral gracile and cuneate nuclei undergo trans-synaptic degeneration in Friedreich ataxia.

In what stage are oocytes arrested in a female before puberty?

Prophase of meiosis I.

Where does fluid accumulate in hydrocele?

Tunica vaginalis.

Which nematode parasite can cause splinter hemorrhages?

Trichinella spiralis.

What organism causes acute bacterial endocarditis in IV drug users?

S. aureus.

What is the best treatment for autism?

Behavioral therapy.

What are the findings and causes of renal fibroelastic hyperplasia?

Hypertension. Findings include: reduced renal size, reduplication f the elastic lamina and fibrosis of the media. Most affected are the interlobular and arcuate arteries. These changes are related to benign nephrosclerosis in hypertensive patients. Other changes include hyaline arteriolosclerosis and patchy ischemic atrophy.

Tumor markers

tumor markers

What are the findings and markers for yolk sac tumor?

Firm lump in one of the testicles; biopsy shows non-encapsulated, yellow, mucinous mass with endodermal sinuses with no evidence of metastatic disease. Tumor marker: AFP.

Notes on uterine bleeding:

Uterine bleeding occurring at regular intervals is called menorrhagia and uterine bleeding occurring at irregular intervals is called dysfunctional uttering bleeding. Dysfunctional uttering bleeding is mostly caused by anovulatory cycles in which there is excess estrogenic stimulation. This may result in endometrial hyperplasia.

NOTE: interstitial volume = insulin space - plasma volume.

What is sarcoidosis?

A multisystem disease comprising of noncaseating granulomas found on various organs. Affects people of African origin between 30-50 years of age. Findings include hilar adenopathy and pulmonary infiltration. Pulmonary symptoms include fatigue, exertional dyspnea, and non-productive cough. One of the treatments is prednisone.

What are the findings in Hirschsprung's disease?

Neonate is unable to pass meconium and begins vomiting. Furthermore, there is no found in the rectum; there is abdominal distention. There is absence of ganglion cells.

Describe the estrogen feedback loops:

Low plasma estrogen causes decreased FSH secretion. However, when estrogen levels increase and are maintained at a certain constant level, the negative feedback look changes to positive feedback look and FSH values also increase. Furthermore, there is a concurrent rise in LH values also. This sequence occurs at the end of the proliferative phase.

What are the findings in status epilepticus?

Sudden and prolonged loss of conscious with tonic contraction of muscle and loss of postural control. The patient experiences rhythmic contractions of all four limbs. Unlike in tonic-clonic seizures (where patients regain a certain amount of consciousness) patients in status epilepticus remain completely unconscious. Treatment would be lorazepam or diazepam. Phenytoin may be prescribed for long-term seizure control.

Components of placenta

components of placenta
USMLE Facts 1 USMLE Facts 2 USMLE Facts 3 USMLE Facts 4 USMLE Facts 5
USMLE Facts 6 USMLE Facts 7 USMLE Facts 8 USMLE Facts 9 USMLE Facts 10

Additional Readings:

Random USMLE Facts

1. Random USMLE Facts volume 1-1
2. Random USMLE Facts volume 2-1
3. Random USMLE Facts volume 3-1
4. Random USMLE Facts volume 4-1
5. Random USMLE Facts volume 5-1
6. Random USMLE Facts volume 6-1
7. Random USMLE Facts volume 7-1
8. Random USMLE Facts volume 8-1
9. Random USMLE Facts volume 9-1
10. Random USMLE Facts volume 10-1
11. Random USMLE Facts volume 11-1
12. Random USMLE Facts volume 12-1

General and Systemic Examinations

1. General Examination for Internal Medicine
2. Jugular Venous Distention Workup
3. ER Chest Pain Workup
4. Format for Patient Presentation
5. Pulmonary Examination for Internal Medicine
6. Cardiac Examination for Internal Medicine
7. Abdominal Examination for Internal Medicine
8. Cranial Nerve Reflexes
9. Motor System Examination
10. Random Sensory System Facts
11. Random Stroke Facts

Medical Files & Presentations

1. USMLE Flashcards [Size: 1.9 MB; Format: MS Powerpoint]
2. Otitis Media in Children [Size: 5.4 MB; Format: MS Powerpoint]
3. Irritable Bowel Syndrome [Size: 170 kB; Format: MS Powerpoint]
4. Acid-Base Disturbance: Acidotic or Alkalotic? [Size: 427 kB; Format: PDF]
5. Thrombocytopenia [Size: 2.42 MB; Format: MS Powerpoint]
6. Are Face Transplants Ethical? [Size: 70.2 kB; Format: MS Powerpoint]

USMLE Step 2 CS Videos

1. Video of Cardiology Examination in a Clinical Setting
2. Video of Neurology Examination in a Clinical Setting
3. Video of Pulmonology Examination in a Clinical Setting
4. Video of Musculoskeletal Examination in a Clinical Setting
5. Video of Abdominal Examination in a Clinical Setting
6. Video of HEENT Examination in a Clinical Setting
7. Video and Description of Rinne Hearing Test
8. Video and Description of Weber Hearing Test

USMLE Laboratory (lab) Values

1. USMLE Blood Lab Values
2. USMLE Cerebrospinal Lab Values
3. USMLE Hematologic Lab Values
4. USMLE Sweat and Urine Lab Values

Medical Images

Useful Medical Images & Diagrams (link opens in a new window)

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