Random USMLE Facts volume 4-3

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Random USMLE Facts volume 4-3:

USMLE Facts 1 USMLE Facts 2 USMLE Facts 3 USMLE Facts 4 USMLE Facts 5
USMLE Facts 6 USMLE Facts 7 USMLE Facts 8 USMLE Facts 9 USMLE Facts 10

Which type of thyroiditis mimics malignancy?

Riedel thyroiditis - autoimmune thyroiditis characterized by dense fibrosis that destroys the thyroid gland and extends into adjacent muscle and connective tissue of the neck. Findings include hypothyroidism, difficulty swallowing, and hoarseness.

Which receptors detect increasing peripheral PCO2?

Peripheral chemoreceptors.

What will happen to the stomach if the gastroduodenal artery suffers an infarction?

Nothing because the stomach has a rich arterial supply.

What happens to cardiac output and total peripheral resistance after an organ is removed from the body?

Cardiac output decreases and total peripheral resistance increases.

Infection by which organism can mimic appendicitis?

Y. enterocolitica - transmitted by contaminated milk.

How is incidence calculated?

• Incidence = number of new cases / total population at risk.
• Total population at risk = healthy population - diseased population.

Sudden reflex contraction of which muscle causes avulsion of the lesser trochanter of the femur?

Psoas major.

What may be some findings in DIC?

Helmet-shaped red cells, schistocytes, and decreased platelets; DIC may occur after violent trauma (eg., after an accident), cancer, sepsis. Renal findings may include diffuse cortical necrosis because severe DIC can produce renal thrombosis.

What is Dressler syndrome?

It is an autoimmune disease resulting in fibrinous pericarditis. Findings include fever, chest pain, and frictional pericardial chest rub. Dressler syndrome is seen in patients weeks after a myocardial infarction.

What is familial gonadotropin-independent premature Leydig cell maturation?

This is a mutated LH receptor that causes it to become continuously active. This leads to elevated testosterone, depressed GnRH and premature sexual development. Both testes would be enlarged with Leydig cell hyperplasia.

What would be the findings in testosterone-secreting tumor?

Same as familial gonadotropin-independent premature Leydig cell maturation except that only one testes would be enlarged.

NOTE: obstruction of the foramen of Luschka would not allow the development of a hydrocephalus because the foramen of Magendie still exists and CSF can flow out of the fourth ventricle through the foramen of Magendie.

Facts on bilirubin and bile acid levels:

• In the portal vein, unconjugated bilirubin exceeds conjugated bilirubin.
• Majority of new bile acid comes from intestinal absorption, and very less new bile acid is actually synthesized.
• There is no ileal uptake of bilirubin.
• Colonic bacteria convert 10% primary bile acids into secondary bile acids; 2% are excreted and 8% are reabsorbed.
• The rest 90% of intestinal conjugated bile acid is absorbed from the ileum back into the portal vein.

What may be a cause of Paget's disease?

Paramyxoviruses (measles and RSV).

Why is Becker muscular dystrophy less severe than Duchenne muscular dystrophy?

Because of in-frame deletions or insertions in Becker form and frameshift deletions or insertions in Duchenne form. In-frame deletions or insertions produce an altered protein (dystophin) but frameshift deletions or insertions produce a truncated protein and a stop codon may eventually be encountered.

NOTE: prostate hyperplasia involves periurethral prostate and prostatic carcinoma involves the posterior lobe of the prostate gland.

Why may some neonates develop hypothyroidism?

T4 and T3 are lipid-soluble hormones that easily cross the placenta. But these hormones only last 3-4 days in the neonate, so, signs of hypothyroidism show up within 2 weeks.

USMLE Facts 1 USMLE Facts 2 USMLE Facts 3 USMLE Facts 4 USMLE Facts 5
USMLE Facts 6 USMLE Facts 7 USMLE Facts 8 USMLE Facts 9 USMLE Facts 10

Additional Readings:

Random USMLE Facts

1. Random USMLE Facts volume 1-1
2. Random USMLE Facts volume 2-1
3. Random USMLE Facts volume 3-1
4. Random USMLE Facts volume 4-1
5. Random USMLE Facts volume 5-1
6. Random USMLE Facts volume 6-1
7. Random USMLE Facts volume 7-1
8. Random USMLE Facts volume 8-1
9. Random USMLE Facts volume 9-1
10. Random USMLE Facts volume 10-1
11. Random USMLE Facts volume 11-1
12. Random USMLE Facts volume 12-1

General and Systemic Examinations

1. General Examination for Internal Medicine
2. Jugular Venous Distention Workup
3. ER Chest Pain Workup
4. Format for Patient Presentation
5. Pulmonary Examination for Internal Medicine
6. Cardiac Examination for Internal Medicine
7. Abdominal Examination for Internal Medicine
8. Cranial Nerve Reflexes
9. Motor System Examination
10. Random Sensory System Facts
11. Random Stroke Facts

Medical Files & Presentations

1. USMLE Flashcards [Size: 1.9 MB; Format: MS Powerpoint]
2. Otitis Media in Children [Size: 5.4 MB; Format: MS Powerpoint]
3. Irritable Bowel Syndrome [Size: 170 kB; Format: MS Powerpoint]
4. Acid-Base Disturbance: Acidotic or Alkalotic? [Size: 427 kB; Format: PDF]
5. Thrombocytopenia [Size: 2.42 MB; Format: MS Powerpoint]
6. Are Face Transplants Ethical? [Size: 70.2 kB; Format: MS Powerpoint]

USMLE Step 2 CS Videos

1. Video of Cardiology Examination in a Clinical Setting
2. Video of Neurology Examination in a Clinical Setting
3. Video of Pulmonology Examination in a Clinical Setting
4. Video of Musculoskeletal Examination in a Clinical Setting
5. Video of Abdominal Examination in a Clinical Setting
6. Video of HEENT Examination in a Clinical Setting
7. Video and Description of Rinne Hearing Test
8. Video and Description of Weber Hearing Test

USMLE Laboratory (lab) Values

1. USMLE Blood Lab Values
2. USMLE Cerebrospinal Lab Values
3. USMLE Hematologic Lab Values
4. USMLE Sweat and Urine Lab Values

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Useful Medical Images & Diagrams (link opens in a new window)

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