Random USMLE Facts volume 1-8

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Random USMLE Facts volume 1-8:

USMLE Facts 1 USMLE Facts 2 USMLE Facts 3 USMLE Facts 4 USMLE Facts 5
USMLE Facts 6 USMLE Facts 7 USMLE Facts 8 USMLE Facts 9 USMLE Facts 10

Give an example of self-limited 'travelers' diarrhea':

Cholera-like toxin released by enterotoxigenic e. coli (ETEC).

Explain B-cell proliferation:

• B-cell proliferation occurs in the bone marrow.
• Mature B-cells leave the bone marrow and migrate to lymphoid organs where they are exposed to antigens.
• On antigen exposure, a clone of the B-cells is activated.
• Some clones differentiate into plasma cells and release IgM.
• The lymphoid follicle germinal center is the site of B-cell proliferation during an immune response.
• Isotype switching occurs in the lymphoid follicle germinal center.

Describe the muscle connections around the clavicle bone:

• Inferior medial: pectoralis major muscle.
• Inferior lateral: deltoid muscle.
• Superior lateral: trapezius muscle.
• Superior medial aspect: sternocleidomastoid muscle.

What is the primary virulence factor for S. pneumoniae, H. influenza, and Neisseria?

Antiphagocytic capsule.

What is the primary virulence factor for N. meningitides and N. gonorrhoeae?

Hypervariable pili.

What is the primary virulence factor for S. aureus?

Protein A (IgG-binding outer membrane).

What is the primary virulence factor for C. botulinum?

Subterminal spore formation.

What are the PTH and calcium levels in osteoporosis?

Normal.

How do you calculate attributable risk percentage from relative risk?

ARP = (RR-1) / RR.

Which vitamin of the body is stored for the longest time?

Cobalamin.

What fungal infections are immunocompromised patients susceptible to?

Mucor, Rhizopus, and Absidia.

Explain the function of actin, troponin C, and tropomyosin in muscle contraction:

• Calcium is released from the sarcoplasmic reticulum and binds troponin C.
• The position of tropomyosin is shifted and myosin binding sites are exposed on the actin filament.

What is the best way to prevent MPTP (1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine) - induced Parkinson's disease?

Pretreatment with selegiline - an inhibitor of MAO B type B.

What test should be administered before metformin treatment?

Serum creatinine.

What is the action of digoxin?

Digoxin is used for atrial fibrillation with rapid ventricular response because it has the ability to slow conduction through the AV node. It causes increased parasympathetic tone through its action on the vagus nerve, and this leads to decreased AV conduction.

Explain the clinical findings in hemolytic uremic syndrome in children:

Most childhood cases of HUS are preceded by bloody diarrhea. Most infections are caused by EHEC O157:H7 enterohemorrhagic E. coli (Shiga-like toxin). Undercooked beef is the most common cause. Peripheral blood smear shows schistocytes (fragmented red blood cells). Schistocytes are formed during microangiopathic hemolytic anemia (eg., HUS, TTP, DIC) or mechanical damage (prosthetic valve, calcified valves, etc.). HUS begins with endothelial injury. Platelets are activated leading to thrombi formation. Then RBCs are damaged and appear as schistocytes. Bleeding time is increased; however, PT and PTT are normal in HUS-TTP. Findings in infants include: fever, abdominal pain, diarrhea, oliguria, and pallor.

USMLE Facts 1 USMLE Facts 2 USMLE Facts 3 USMLE Facts 4 USMLE Facts 5
USMLE Facts 6 USMLE Facts 7 USMLE Facts 8 USMLE Facts 9 USMLE Facts 10

Additional Readings:

Random USMLE Facts

1. Random USMLE Facts volume 1-1
2. Random USMLE Facts volume 2-1
3. Random USMLE Facts volume 3-1
4. Random USMLE Facts volume 4-1
5. Random USMLE Facts volume 5-1
6. Random USMLE Facts volume 6-1
7. Random USMLE Facts volume 7-1
8. Random USMLE Facts volume 8-1
9. Random USMLE Facts volume 9-1
10. Random USMLE Facts volume 10-1
11. Random USMLE Facts volume 11-1
12. Random USMLE Facts volume 12-1

General and Systemic Examinations

1. General Examination for Internal Medicine
2. Jugular Venous Distention Workup
3. ER Chest Pain Workup
4. Format for Patient Presentation
5. Pulmonary Examination for Internal Medicine
6. Cardiac Examination for Internal Medicine
7. Abdominal Examination for Internal Medicine
8. Cranial Nerve Reflexes
9. Motor System Examination
10. Random Sensory System Facts
11. Random Stroke Facts

Medical Files & Presentations

1. USMLE Flashcards [Size: 1.9 MB; Format: MS Powerpoint]
2. Otitis Media in Children [Size: 5.4 MB; Format: MS Powerpoint]
3. Irritable Bowel Syndrome [Size: 170 kB; Format: MS Powerpoint]
4. Acid-Base Disturbance: Acidotic or Alkalotic? [Size: 427 kB; Format: PDF]
5. Thrombocytopenia [Size: 2.42 MB; Format: MS Powerpoint]
6. Are Face Transplants Ethical? [Size: 70.2 kB; Format: MS Powerpoint]

USMLE Step 2 CS Videos

1. Video of Cardiology Examination in a Clinical Setting
2. Video of Neurology Examination in a Clinical Setting
3. Video of Pulmonology Examination in a Clinical Setting
4. Video of Musculoskeletal Examination in a Clinical Setting
5. Video of Abdominal Examination in a Clinical Setting
6. Video of HEENT Examination in a Clinical Setting
7. Video and Description of Rinne Hearing Test
8. Video and Description of Weber Hearing Test

USMLE Laboratory (lab) Values

1. USMLE Blood Lab Values
2. USMLE Cerebrospinal Lab Values
3. USMLE Hematologic Lab Values
4. USMLE Sweat and Urine Lab Values

Medical Images

Useful Medical Images & Diagrams (link opens in a new window)

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