Notes on Respiratory System

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Respiratory:

• Pseudostratified, ciliated, columnar cells.

Olfactory:

• Pseudostratified epithelium composed of olfactory cells.

• Only adult regenerating neurons in the body: basal cells of olfactory.

Nasopharynx:

• Pseudostratified, ciliated, columnar cells.

Oropharynx:

• Stratified, squamous, nonkeratinized epithelium.

Trachea:

• Pseudostratified ciliated columnar cells.

Bronchi:

• Pseudostratified ciliated columnar cells to simple columnar cells.

Bronchioles:

• Ciliated and goblet cells.

Clara cells:

• Secrete a componet of surfactant; trap airborne toxins; secrete cytochrome P-450.

Alveoli cells:

Type I:

Gas exchange.

Type II:

Surfactant and repair of damaged cells.

Additional Notes:

• Cilia found in olfactory cells.

• Olfactory sensation through brush cells: CN 5.

• Olfactory neurons regenerate in one month.

• Vocal cords: stratified, squamous, epithelium; skeletal muscle core.

• Stratified squamous epithelium in smokers.

• In old age, hyaline cartilage of tracheal cartilage rings replaced by bone.

• Granule cell in trachea: enteroendocrine cell.

• Tracheal blood vessels located in adventitia (outermost connective tissue).

• Visceral pleura covering the lung: simple squamous.

• Olfactory epithelium lacks goblet cells.

• Pharynx: air, food, speech.

Additional Reading:

Histology and Cytology

1. Cell Components
2. Nervous Tissue
3. Muscle Tissue
4. Lymphoid Tissue
5. Integument
6. Respiratory System
7. Gastrointestinal System
8. Renal/Urinary System
9. Male Reproductive System
10. Female Reproductive System

Gross Anatomy

1. Back and Nervous System
2. Thorax
3. Abdomen, Pelvis, and Perineum
4. Upper Limb
5. Lower Limb
6. Head and Neck
7. Chest Wall
8. Shoulder

Anatomy Videos

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1. Video of HEENT Examination in a Clinical Setting

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