Random USMLE Facts volume 2-10

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Random USMLE Facts volume 2-10:

USMLE Facts 1 USMLE Facts 2 USMLE Facts 3 USMLE Facts 4 USMLE Facts 5
USMLE Facts 6 USMLE Facts 7 USMLE Facts 8 USMLE Facts 9 USMLE Facts 10

What are findings in a ventricular septal defect?

Signs of mild congestive heart failure, harsh (holosystolic) systolic murmur with no diastolic murmur; increased oxygen saturation in the right ventricle. Furthermore, there may be frequent pulmonary infections. There will be a left-to-right shunt.

What can survive autoclaving?

Endotoxin (LPS).

What kind of axon transport do herpesvirus, poliovirus, rabies virus, and tetanus toxin engage in?

Retrograde transport established by dynein.

What are the findings in polycystic ovarian syndrome?

Amenorrhea, excessive hair on face, chest, back, and lower abdomen; enlarged ovaries; LH and testosterone concentrations are increased and FSH concentration is decreased. Ovaries contain a large number of cystic follicles.

Where are intracranial schwannoma found?

Between the cerebellum and the lateral pons ~ cerebellopontine angle. These schwannomas arise from CN VIII an may also involve CN VII and CN V.

What is neurogenic detrusor spasticity?

Urinary frequency increases; the small bladder contracts only with minimal stretching. The bladder is supplied by the detrusor muscle, which is supplied by the thoracic spinal cord. Spinal cord injury above the conus medullaris can damage these cortical regulatory neurons and can cause hyperreflexia with minimal stretching.

What are serum Ph, Ca and PTH values in celiac disease?

Celiac disease can cause vitamin D malabsorption. This causes decreased Ca, increased PTH and decreased Ph.

Match female genital tract structure to its epithelium:

• Ovary: simple cuboidal.
• Fallopian tube: simple columnar.
• Uterus: simple (pseudostratified) columnar.
• Cervix: simple columnar and stratified squamous.
• Vagina: stratified squamous non-keratinized.

What causes 'heart burn' in patients with CREST syndrome?

Patients with CREST syndrome may experience heartburn, regurgitation, dysphagia. The esophagus is dilated and there is no peristalsis. There may be fibrous replacement of muscularis; patients are at risk of developing Barrett esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma.

How can cardiac output be calculated from the Fick principle?

CO = oxygen consumption / arteriovenous oxygen difference.

In Zollinger-Ellison tumors, why is there so much gastrin?

Gastrin under normal conditions is under feedback control by H+. However, in Zollinger-Ellison tumors, gastrin is no longer under feedback control and the amount of gastrin produced keeps on increasing causing increased HCl production. Zollinger-Ellison tumors occur as duodenal or pancreatic gastrin-secreting endocrine tumors. There may be an increased density of parietal cells in the body of the stomach due to gastrin stimulation to produce excessive HCl.

What is zygomycosis and how is it caused?

Zygomycosis is caused by fungi from genera Rhizopus, Absidia, or Mucor. Infection in the cranial (rhinocerebral) area may include prefrontal headache and selling. Stain analysis will reveal ribbon-like hyphae at 90 degrees.

What area of the brain is specific for HSV-1 infection? What are the findings?

Temporal lobe. Confusion, disorientation, headache, nausea, vomiting.

Causes of:

• Diastolic murmurs: turbulence during ventricular filling.
• Heaves at left parasternal border: ventricular hypertrophy.
• Loud S2: closure of the aortic valve.
• Loud S3: rapid ventricular filling or mitral incompetence of congestive heart failure.
• Weal peripheral pulse: aortic stenosis; heard during systole.

USMLE Facts 1 USMLE Facts 2 USMLE Facts 3 USMLE Facts 4 USMLE Facts 5
USMLE Facts 6 USMLE Facts 7 USMLE Facts 8 USMLE Facts 9 USMLE Facts 10

Additional Readings:

Random USMLE Facts

1. Random USMLE Facts volume 1-1
2. Random USMLE Facts volume 2-1
3. Random USMLE Facts volume 3-1
4. Random USMLE Facts volume 4-1
5. Random USMLE Facts volume 5-1
6. Random USMLE Facts volume 6-1
7. Random USMLE Facts volume 7-1
8. Random USMLE Facts volume 8-1
9. Random USMLE Facts volume 9-1
10. Random USMLE Facts volume 10-1
11. Random USMLE Facts volume 11-1
12. Random USMLE Facts volume 12-1

General and Systemic Examinations

1. General Examination for Internal Medicine
2. Jugular Venous Distention Workup
3. ER Chest Pain Workup
4. Format for Patient Presentation
5. Pulmonary Examination for Internal Medicine
6. Cardiac Examination for Internal Medicine
7. Abdominal Examination for Internal Medicine
8. Cranial Nerve Reflexes
9. Motor System Examination
10. Random Sensory System Facts
11. Random Stroke Facts

Medical Files & Presentations

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4. Acid-Base Disturbance: Acidotic or Alkalotic? [Size: 427 kB; Format: PDF]
5. Thrombocytopenia [Size: 2.42 MB; Format: MS Powerpoint]
6. Are Face Transplants Ethical? [Size: 70.2 kB; Format: MS Powerpoint]

USMLE Step 2 CS Videos

1. Video of Cardiology Examination in a Clinical Setting
2. Video of Neurology Examination in a Clinical Setting
3. Video of Pulmonology Examination in a Clinical Setting
4. Video of Musculoskeletal Examination in a Clinical Setting
5. Video of Abdominal Examination in a Clinical Setting
6. Video of HEENT Examination in a Clinical Setting
7. Video and Description of Rinne Hearing Test
8. Video and Description of Weber Hearing Test

USMLE Laboratory (lab) Values

1. USMLE Blood Lab Values
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3. USMLE Hematologic Lab Values
4. USMLE Sweat and Urine Lab Values

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