Random USMLE Facts volume 2-5

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Random USMLE Facts volume 2-5:

USMLE Facts 1 USMLE Facts 2 USMLE Facts 3 USMLE Facts 4 USMLE Facts 5
USMLE Facts 6 USMLE Facts 7 USMLE Facts 8 USMLE Facts 9 USMLE Facts 10

What vaccinations work against S. pneumoniae, N. meningitidis, and H. influenzae?

Mutant nontoxic diphtheria toxin, N. meningitidis outer membrane protein complex, and tetanus toxoid. The polysaccharide capsules of the organisms are combined with protein carriers and used as vaccines.

How is case-fatality calculated?

Case-fatality = Fatal / (fatal + non-fatal events).

What are the findings in gallstone ileus?

It is a mechanical obstruction of the bowel caused by large gallstone that has eroded through the cholecystoenteric fistula. There are waxing and waning of the symptoms. The gallstone comes to rest in the ileum. Findings include air in the biliary tree, crampy abdominal pain vomiting, and abdominal distention. Ultrasound is used for diagnosis.

The blockage of what pathway by some antipsychotic drugs leads to galactorrhea in some women?

Tuberoinfundibular dopaminergic pathway.

What is tachyphylaxis?

The decline, after a few days of use, in vasoconstriction caused by alpha-adrenergic agonists like phenylephrine, xylometazoline, and oxymetazoline.

How does CMV affect immuno-competent vs immuno-compromised patients?

In immuno-competent individuals, CMV causes mononucleosis.
In immuno-compromised individuals, CMV causes retinitis.

What is the genetic bases of hemochromatosis?

Mutated HFE gene resulting in cysteine-to-tyrosine substitution at amino acid 282 (C282Y).

How is GLUT-4 different from other glucose transporters?

GLUT-4 is responsive to insulin. That means, the more the insulin, the more expression of GLUT-4 receptors. GLUT-4 receptors are found in skeletal muscle and renal tubular cells.

What is the action of pantothenic acid? What is caused by the deficiency of pantothenic acid?

Converts oxaloacetate to citrate. Deficiency is rare, but occurs in severly malnourished people; they experience paresthesias and dysesthesias.

True or false: ACTH stimulates the secretion of DHEA.

True.

Where is transitional epithelium most likely found in the body?

Urinary system.

Overdose of atenolol causes: third-degree (complete) AV block, bradycardia. Give atropine, isoproterenol, dopamine.
Overdose of albuterol causes: tachyarrhythmias.
Overdose of glyburide causes: hypoglycemia.
Overdose of levothyroxine causes: tachyarrhythmias.

How is prion disease different from JV virus?

• Prion disease causes: memory loss, mood changes, ataxia, hypertonicity of extremities myoclonus in lower extremities.
• JC virus infection causes infection only in immunocompromised patients; findings include disturbance in speech, ataxia, visual impairment, sensory loss.

Why does treatment for a type of AML cause DIC?

DIC can develop during AML treatment due to release of granules (Auer rods) from cells. Type M2 AML (aka acute promyelocytic leukemia) treatment may cause this phenomenon.

How is Addison's disease different in primary vs secondary?

• Primary: produces skin hyperpigmentation; caused due to direct insult to adrenal glands; mostly autoimmune.
• Secondary: there is no skin hyperpigmentation; caused due to insult to pituitary gland or hypothalamus.

What happens when we stimulate the auricular branch of the vagus nerve?

The person may experience fainting, coughing, gagging.

USMLE Facts 1 USMLE Facts 2 USMLE Facts 3 USMLE Facts 4 USMLE Facts 5
USMLE Facts 6 USMLE Facts 7 USMLE Facts 8 USMLE Facts 9 USMLE Facts 10

Additional Readings:

Random USMLE Facts

1. Random USMLE Facts volume 1-1
2. Random USMLE Facts volume 2-1
3. Random USMLE Facts volume 3-1
4. Random USMLE Facts volume 4-1
5. Random USMLE Facts volume 5-1
6. Random USMLE Facts volume 6-1
7. Random USMLE Facts volume 7-1
8. Random USMLE Facts volume 8-1
9. Random USMLE Facts volume 9-1
10. Random USMLE Facts volume 10-1
11. Random USMLE Facts volume 11-1
12. Random USMLE Facts volume 12-1

General and Systemic Examinations

1. General Examination for Internal Medicine
2. Jugular Venous Distention Workup
3. ER Chest Pain Workup
4. Format for Patient Presentation
5. Pulmonary Examination for Internal Medicine
6. Cardiac Examination for Internal Medicine
7. Abdominal Examination for Internal Medicine
8. Cranial Nerve Reflexes
9. Motor System Examination
10. Random Sensory System Facts
11. Random Stroke Facts

Medical Files & Presentations

1. USMLE Flashcards [Size: 1.9 MB; Format: MS Powerpoint]
2. Otitis Media in Children [Size: 5.4 MB; Format: MS Powerpoint]
3. Irritable Bowel Syndrome [Size: 170 kB; Format: MS Powerpoint]
4. Acid-Base Disturbance: Acidotic or Alkalotic? [Size: 427 kB; Format: PDF]
5. Thrombocytopenia [Size: 2.42 MB; Format: MS Powerpoint]
6. Are Face Transplants Ethical? [Size: 70.2 kB; Format: MS Powerpoint]

USMLE Step 2 CS Videos

1. Video of Cardiology Examination in a Clinical Setting
2. Video of Neurology Examination in a Clinical Setting
3. Video of Pulmonology Examination in a Clinical Setting
4. Video of Musculoskeletal Examination in a Clinical Setting
5. Video of Abdominal Examination in a Clinical Setting
6. Video of HEENT Examination in a Clinical Setting
7. Video and Description of Rinne Hearing Test
8. Video and Description of Weber Hearing Test

USMLE Laboratory (lab) Values

1. USMLE Blood Lab Values
2. USMLE Cerebrospinal Lab Values
3. USMLE Hematologic Lab Values
4. USMLE Sweat and Urine Lab Values

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