Random USMLE Facts volume 2-4

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Random USMLE Facts volume 2-4:

USMLE Facts 1 USMLE Facts 2 USMLE Facts 3 USMLE Facts 4 USMLE Facts 5
USMLE Facts 6 USMLE Facts 7 USMLE Facts 8 USMLE Facts 9 USMLE Facts 10

What organisms can cause co-infection with influenza A?

S. pneumoniae, S. aureus, and H. influenza.

Which nitrate agent has the highest oral bioavailability?

Isosorbide mononitrate.

What are the causes and findings in arginase deficiency?

Progressive spastic paresis, choreoathetoid movements, high level of arginine in plasma and CSF. Avoid food containing arginine. Argininase is involved in the production of urea and ornithine from arginine.

What is the best treatment for myocardial infarct? And why?

Beta-adrenergic blockers are used for this purpose. Beta-blockers are two types: selective and non-selective. Non-selective are propranolol, timolol, and nadolol.

Beta-1: heart.
Beta-2: muscle, bronchi, glucagon secretion.

Patients with asthma or COPD shouldn't be given non-selective beta-blockers.

Irritation of what nerve can cause dyspnea and hiccups?

Phrenic nerve arising from C3-C5.

What would endometrial curettage of a pregnant woman reveal?

Decidualized endometrium.

What would endometrial curettage of early proliferative phase reveal?

Straight short endometrial glands.

What would endometrial curettage during intrauterine pregnancy reveal?

Decidualized endometrium, chorionic villi and embryonic tissue.

What would endometrial curettage during endometrial adenocarcinoma reveal?

Atypical endometrial glands.

What are the findings in craniopharyngioma?

Growth retardation in children, bulging lesion into floor of third ventricle and base of brain. Craniopharyngiomas are derived from the Rathke pouch.

What are the finding sin myotonic dystrophy?

• Weakness and gait disturbances; autosomal dominant trait; there is anticipation.
• Weak grip.
• Cataracts; frontal baldness.
• Gonadal atrophy.

Which ILs are responsible for growth and differentiation of B-cells after exposure to antigen?

IL 4 and IL 5.

What is the usage and mechanism of action of pramipexole?

Pramipexole is a dopamine agonist. The thing about dopamine agonists is that they resemble the natural dopamine found within the body, and don't have to be activated. There are two types of dopamine agonists:

Ergot: bromocriptine and pergolide.
Non-ergot: pramipexole and ropinirole.

Dopamine agonists prolong the effects of levodopa, thus stimulating dopamine receptors.

What are the findings and causes in cystic fibrosis?

Recurrent otitis media and sinusitis in a young child. There is secretion of thick mucus by the paranasal sinuses and middle ear epithelium. Sweat may have high chloride concentrations; family history may be involved.

However, some cystic fibrosis patients have normal sweat chloride concentrations. Diagnosis in these individuals is based on nasal transepithelial potential difference (more negative). Thus, the abnormal CFTR gene in exocrine (not sweat!) glands reduces ductal epithelial chloride secretion and increases sodium and water resorption; the mucus is very dehydrated.

USMLE Facts 1 USMLE Facts 2 USMLE Facts 3 USMLE Facts 4 USMLE Facts 5
USMLE Facts 6 USMLE Facts 7 USMLE Facts 8 USMLE Facts 9 USMLE Facts 10

Additional Readings:

Random USMLE Facts

1. Random USMLE Facts volume 1-1
2. Random USMLE Facts volume 2-1
3. Random USMLE Facts volume 3-1
4. Random USMLE Facts volume 4-1
5. Random USMLE Facts volume 5-1
6. Random USMLE Facts volume 6-1
7. Random USMLE Facts volume 7-1
8. Random USMLE Facts volume 8-1
9. Random USMLE Facts volume 9-1
10. Random USMLE Facts volume 10-1
11. Random USMLE Facts volume 11-1
12. Random USMLE Facts volume 12-1

General and Systemic Examinations

1. General Examination for Internal Medicine
2. Jugular Venous Distention Workup
3. ER Chest Pain Workup
4. Format for Patient Presentation
5. Pulmonary Examination for Internal Medicine
6. Cardiac Examination for Internal Medicine
7. Abdominal Examination for Internal Medicine
8. Cranial Nerve Reflexes
9. Motor System Examination
10. Random Sensory System Facts
11. Random Stroke Facts

Medical Files & Presentations

1. USMLE Flashcards [Size: 1.9 MB; Format: MS Powerpoint]
2. Otitis Media in Children [Size: 5.4 MB; Format: MS Powerpoint]
3. Irritable Bowel Syndrome [Size: 170 kB; Format: MS Powerpoint]
4. Acid-Base Disturbance: Acidotic or Alkalotic? [Size: 427 kB; Format: PDF]
5. Thrombocytopenia [Size: 2.42 MB; Format: MS Powerpoint]
6. Are Face Transplants Ethical? [Size: 70.2 kB; Format: MS Powerpoint]

USMLE Step 2 CS Videos

1. Video of Cardiology Examination in a Clinical Setting
2. Video of Neurology Examination in a Clinical Setting
3. Video of Pulmonology Examination in a Clinical Setting
4. Video of Musculoskeletal Examination in a Clinical Setting
5. Video of Abdominal Examination in a Clinical Setting
6. Video of HEENT Examination in a Clinical Setting
7. Video and Description of Rinne Hearing Test
8. Video and Description of Weber Hearing Test

USMLE Laboratory (lab) Values

1. USMLE Blood Lab Values
2. USMLE Cerebrospinal Lab Values
3. USMLE Hematologic Lab Values
4. USMLE Sweat and Urine Lab Values

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Useful Medical Images & Diagrams (link opens in a new window)

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