Development of the Breast

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Prenatal:

• Breasts begin as thickenings of epidermal columnar cells along the mammary line.

• Mammary line (milk ridge) disappears by 6th-7th week, leaving paired mammary glands.

• Nipple region inverted until 8th month; ducts patent at birth.

• Pubertal - hormonal changes result in localized fat deposition and increased number of ducts.

Pregnancy:

• Hormonal changes further increase glandular potential, fat, and thus breast size.

• Melanin production increases, darkening areolae and nipple.

• Areolar glands secrete sebaceous lubricant for nipple prior to lactation.

Postmenopausal:

• Ducts and secretory units regress; fat slowly disappears.

• Inelastic suspensory ligaments remain distended.

More Topics on Chest Wall:

1. Osteology of Pectoral Region
2. Glandular Structure of the Mammary Gland
3. Development of the Breast
4. Fluid Circulation in the Breast
5. Muscles of the Pectoral Region
6. Intercostal Connective Tissue
7. Notes on Neurovascular Bundle

Additional Reading:

Histology and Cytology

1. Cell Components
2. Nervous Tissue
3. Muscle Tissue
4. Lymphoid Tissue
5. Integument
6. Respiratory System
7. Gastrointestinal System
8. Renal/Urinary System
9. Male Reproductive System
10. Female Reproductive System

Gross Anatomy

1. Back and Nervous System
2. Thorax
3. Abdomen, Pelvis, and Perineum
4. Upper Limb
5. Lower Limb
6. Head and Neck
7. Chest Wall
8. Shoulder

Anatomy Videos

1. Video of Musculoskeletal Examination in a Clinical Setting
1. Video of HEENT Examination in a Clinical Setting

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1. Jugular Venous Distention Workup

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