Genetic Regulation

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Lactose Operon:

• Controls the synthesis of three bacterial enzymes involved in lactose metabolism; glucose is metabolized using glycolysis pathway.

• The three genes are: Z, Y, and A.

• Gene expressed when lactose is available, and glucose is not.

Control of Eukaryotic Gene Expression:

• Enhancer: binding site for activator proteins, also known as transcriptional factors, which contain a DNA-binding domain and an activation domain.

• Promoter: consists of: (-75) CAAT Box, UPE GC-Rich, and (-25) TATA Box.

• Transcribed region: the actual DNA segment that is to be transcribed.

Transcription Factors:

• Contain a DNA-binding domain and an activation domain.

• DNA-binding domain: binds to a specific nucleotide sequence in promoter of response element.

• Activation domain: binding to other transcription factors.

General Transcription Factors:

• Bind to promoter to allow RNA polymerase III to begin transcription.

Specific Transcription Factors:

• Bind to enhancers (or even silencers) to initiate transcription.

Peroxisomes:

• Generate hydrogen peroxide from fatty acid oxidation.

• Lack of causes: hyperlipoproteinemia with normal LDL and cholesterol levels.

Peroxisomal Disease Treatment:

• Gemfibrozil; stimulates proliferation of peroxisomes.

Zellweger Syndrome:

• Deficiency of peroxisomes.

• Accumulation of very long chain fatty acids and other fatty acids.

Gluconeogenesis and Response Elements:

• Gluconegenesis is controlled by phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK); rate-limiting step (?).

• PEPCK controlled by cortisol and glucagon.

Additional Readings:

Basic Biochemistry

1. Nucleic Acid Structure and Organization
2. DNA Replication and Repair
3. Transcription and RNA Processing
4. Genetic Code, Mutations, and Translation
5. Genetic Regulation
6. Recombinant DNA
7. Amino Acids, Proteins, Enzymes
8. Hormones
9. Vitamins
10. Energy Metabolism
11. Glycolysis and Pyruvate Dehydrogenase
12. Citric Acid Cycle and Oxidative Phosphorylation
13. Glycogen, Gluconeogenesis, and Hexose Monophosphate Shunt
14. Lipid Synthesis and Storage
15. Lipid Mobilization and Catabolism
16. Amino Acid Metabolism Disorders
17. Purine and Pyrimidine Metabolism
18. Electron Transport
19. Citric Acid Cycle and Glyoxylate Cycle
20. Glycolysis
21. Pyruvate Metabolism
22. Mitochondrial ATP formation
23. Gluconeogenesis
24. Glycogen Metabolism
25. Nitrogen Fixation (Metabolism) reactions, and Heme Metabolism
26. Amino Acid Metabolism
27. What is Medium Chain Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency (MCADD)?

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