Random USMLE Facts volume 8-4

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Random USMLE Facts volume 8-4:

USMLE Facts 1 USMLE Facts 2 USMLE Facts 3 USMLE Facts 4 USMLE Facts 5
USMLE Facts 6 USMLE Facts 7 USMLE Facts 8 USMLE Facts 9 USMLE Facts 10

What are some findings in multiple myeloma?

Tired, constipated, bone pain, and renal failure.

What is a homeobox?

A homeobox is a DNA sequence about 180 nucleotides in length. It encodes transcription regulators that play roles in morphogenesis.

What is the significance of liver gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGTP)?

Liver gamma glutamyl transpeptidase levels are increased in liver injury.

When are levels of alkaline phosphatase increased?

Liver or bone injury.

What are some findings in type III hypersensitivity?

Immune complex deposition, vasculitis, fever, utricaria, arthralgias, glomerulonephritis, lymphadenopathy, and low serum C3. Sulfonamides are among many drugs that can provoke type III hypersensitivity.

NOTE: cardiac valves are made of connective tissue.

What is a "nursemaid's elbow?"

Radial head subluxation; it results from sudden outward pulling on an extended and pronated arm. Deep branch of the radial never is damaged and it causes wrist drop. Sensation to the arm is intact. Deep branch of the radial nerve passes over the head of the radius.

How does acute necrotic pancreatitis cause adult respiratory distress syndrome?

Diffuse injury to alveolocapillary membrane results in interstitial and intraalveolar edema, acute inflammation, and formation of alveolar hyaline membranes.

What causes sorbitol accumulation in tissues? What are the consequences?

In hyperglycemia, excess plasma glucose is converted to sorbitol by aldose reductase. Excess sorbitol in tissues results in vision impairment due to bilateral clouding of the lens.

What is lysozyme?

An antibacterial enzyme that is found in body secretions such as tears and saliva, and within granules of neutrophils, fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and inflammatory cells.

What organism cases hepatic abscess?

S. aureus. Findings include fever, chills, and upper right abdominal pain.

What is the most common side-effect of low-dose aspirin (used to prevent secondary coronary artery events and ischemic strokes)?

Increased fecal blood loss.

What is a porcelain gall bladder?

Bluish, brittle, calcium-laden gallbladder. High-risk for gallbladder cancer. Cholecystectomy is the recommended treatment.

What does morphine do to smooth muscles?

Smooth muscle contraction; increase gallbladder pressure and cause pain.

Why is achlorhydria a boon to cholera?

Cholera organisms are very sensitive to stomach acid, and achlorhydria (lack of stomach acid) lays foundation for disease formation. Achlorhydria may have a pathological cause, or may occur in patients taking proton-pump inhibitors.

Why is methadone used to treat heroin abuse?

Methadone is a mu receptor agonist with long half-life (action) and good oral bioavailability.

What are the actions of:

• Ketoconazole: stop testosterone synthesis.
• Finasteride: stop peripheral conversion of testosterone to DHT.
• Flutamide and cyproterone: impaired androgen hormone-receptor complex on target cells.

Short notes on antipsychotics:

• High potency agents are more likely to cause extrapyramidal symptoms and less likely to cause anticholinergic and antihistamine side-effects.
• Low potency agents are more likely to cause anticholinergic and antihistamine side-effects.
• Typical high potency examples are haloperidol, olanzapine, quetiapine.
• Typical low potency examples are chlorpromazine, thioridazine.
• Atypical examples are clozapine, risperidone, olanzapine, quetiapine.
• Pseudoparkinsonism and acute dystonias are treated with anticholinergic drugs such as benztropine and trihexyphenidyl.
• High potency drugs disrupt the dopamine pathway causing extrapyramidal symptoms.
• Remember, Potency = extraPyramidal.

USMLE Facts 1 USMLE Facts 2 USMLE Facts 3 USMLE Facts 4 USMLE Facts 5
USMLE Facts 6 USMLE Facts 7 USMLE Facts 8 USMLE Facts 9 USMLE Facts 10

Additional Readings:

Random USMLE Facts

1. Random USMLE Facts volume 1-1
2. Random USMLE Facts volume 2-1
3. Random USMLE Facts volume 3-1
4. Random USMLE Facts volume 4-1
5. Random USMLE Facts volume 5-1
6. Random USMLE Facts volume 6-1
7. Random USMLE Facts volume 7-1
8. Random USMLE Facts volume 8-1
9. Random USMLE Facts volume 9-1
10. Random USMLE Facts volume 10-1
11. Random USMLE Facts volume 11-1
12. Random USMLE Facts volume 12-1

General and Systemic Examinations

1. General Examination for Internal Medicine
2. Jugular Venous Distention Workup
3. ER Chest Pain Workup
4. Format for Patient Presentation
5. Pulmonary Examination for Internal Medicine
6. Cardiac Examination for Internal Medicine
7. Abdominal Examination for Internal Medicine
8. Cranial Nerve Reflexes
9. Motor System Examination
10. Random Sensory System Facts
11. Random Stroke Facts

Medical Files & Presentations

1. USMLE Flashcards [Size: 1.9 MB; Format: MS Powerpoint]
2. Otitis Media in Children [Size: 5.4 MB; Format: MS Powerpoint]
3. Irritable Bowel Syndrome [Size: 170 kB; Format: MS Powerpoint]
4. Acid-Base Disturbance: Acidotic or Alkalotic? [Size: 427 kB; Format: PDF]
5. Thrombocytopenia [Size: 2.42 MB; Format: MS Powerpoint]
6. Are Face Transplants Ethical? [Size: 70.2 kB; Format: MS Powerpoint]

USMLE Step 2 CS Videos

1. Video of Cardiology Examination in a Clinical Setting
2. Video of Neurology Examination in a Clinical Setting
3. Video of Pulmonology Examination in a Clinical Setting
4. Video of Musculoskeletal Examination in a Clinical Setting
5. Video of Abdominal Examination in a Clinical Setting
6. Video of HEENT Examination in a Clinical Setting
7. Video and Description of Rinne Hearing Test
8. Video and Description of Weber Hearing Test

USMLE Laboratory (lab) Values

1. USMLE Blood Lab Values
2. USMLE Cerebrospinal Lab Values
3. USMLE Hematologic Lab Values
4. USMLE Sweat and Urine Lab Values

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Useful Medical Images & Diagrams (link opens in a new window)

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