Notes on Alveolar-Blood Gas Exchange

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Factors Affecting PCO2:

• Alveolar ventilation: Inverse relation.

• Hyperventilation: Inverse relation.

• Hypoventilation: Direct relation.

• Metabolic rate: Direct relationship.

Factors Affecting Alveolar PO2:

• Atmospheric pressure: Direct relationship.

• Fractional concentration of oxygen: Direct relationship.

• Alveolar pressure of CO2: Inverse relationship.

Fick Law of Diffusion:

• Simple diffusion = gas exchange between alveolar and pulmonary capillary blood.

• Factors affecting rate of diffusion also affect rate of CO2 and O2 exchange.

Rate of Diffusion Affected By:

• Surface area and thickness of membranes.

• Main factor affecting solubility is the diffusion constant of a gas.

Blood Gas Diffusion Diagram:

Blood Gas Diffusion

NOTE: if A-a gradient is less then 10 mm Hg, it is due to hypoventilation.

Additional Reading:

Basic Pulmonology

1. Lung Mechanics
2. Alveolar-Blood Gas Exchange
3. Gas Transport and Regulation of Respiration
4. Four Causes of Hypoxemia
5. Control of Respiration
6. Systemic vs Pulmonary Circulation FAQ
7. Principles of Gas Exchange in Lungs
8. Hypoxia, Hypoxemia & Hemoglobin-Oxygen Saturation Curve
9. FAQ on Mechanics of Breathing
10. FAQ on Control of Breathing
11. Criteria for Transudate Pleural Effusion
12. Light's Criteria for Exudate Pleural Effusion
13. Notes on Lung Sounds
14. Patient with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS)
15. Management of Acute Deep Venous Thrombosis
16. Notes on Asthma Treatment

Pulmonology Videos

1. Video of Pulmonology Examination in a Clinical Setting

Related Topics

1. Histology of the Respiratory System
2. Upper and Lower Respiratory Disorders
3. Pulmonary Examination for Internal Medicine

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