Random USMLE Facts volume 6-8

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Random USMLE Facts volume 6-8:

USMLE Facts 1 USMLE Facts 2 USMLE Facts 3 USMLE Facts 4 USMLE Facts 5
USMLE Facts 6 USMLE Facts 7 USMLE Facts 8 USMLE Facts 9 USMLE Facts 10

What does norepinephrine do to heart contractility and renal blood flow?

No change and decrease, respectively.

What neural cells participate in formation of a wall around the old infarct?

Astrocytes.

What effect does nifedipine have on AV conduction?

No effect because nifedipine is selective for the vasculature of the heart and not directly for the heart.

What are true vocal cords lined by? And what virus targets this tissue?

Stratified squamous epithelium, and is targeted by human papilloma virus.

What happens when the sympathetic innervation of the eye is disrupted?

Ptosis, mosis, and anhydrosis. This is a common manifestation of Horner's syndrome, possibly due to tumor invasion of autonomic ganglia. These are called Pancoast tumors.

What happens during compression of the vagus nerve?

Hoarseness (due to ipsilateral paralysis of the pharynx, larynx, and soft palate), dysarthria, dysphagia, and loss of gag reflex.

What may be a cause of B-lymphocyte proliferation in HIV patients?

EBV infection.

What damage does C. difficile cause?

Damage to cytoskeleton integrity of intestinal mucosal cells.

What are some differences between Th1 and Th2 cells?

• Th1: cell-mediated immunity; activates macrophages and cytotoxic T cells; secretes IL-2 and IFN-gamma; cytotoxicity and delayed-type hypersensitivity. Note that IL-12 is required for T-cell differentiation into Th1 cells.
• Th2: humoral immunity; activates B-cells; secretes ILs 4, 5, 6, 10; secretes antibodies. Note that IL-4 is required for T-cell differentiation into Th2 cells.

What exactly happens during angina treatment with nitroglycerin?

Decreased left ventricular volume.

What may be responsible for smaller lung volume in COPD (increased residual volume and decreased tidal volume)?

Interalveolar wall destruction.

What part of the kidneys do ACE inhibitors affect?

Efferent arterioles (dilation), causing decreased GFR.

What are central scotomas?

Macular lesions impair central vision and result in central scotomas in the elderly. Findings may include small yellow retinal lesions clustered in the macula. Scotomas may be seen in multiple sclerosis, diabetic retinopathy, and retinitis pigmentosa. Complications include macular degeneration.

What are the cellular targets of alpha-glucosidase inhibitors?

Surface membrane-bound enzymes (disaccharides).

What are the cellular targets of sulfonylureas?

Membrane ion channels.

What are the cellular targets of insulin?

Surface tyrosine kinase-coupled receptors.

What are the three phases of gastric acid secretion?

• Cephalic phase: mediated by cholinergic and vagal mechanisms and is triggered by the thought, sight, and smell of food.
• Gastric phase: mediated by the presence of gastrin and triggered by the presence of food and distention of the stomach.
• Intestinal phase: initiated when protein-containing food enters the duodenum.

After a meal, what may play a role in downgrading gastric acid secretion?

Intestinal influences.

USMLE Facts 1 USMLE Facts 2 USMLE Facts 3 USMLE Facts 4 USMLE Facts 5
USMLE Facts 6 USMLE Facts 7 USMLE Facts 8 USMLE Facts 9 USMLE Facts 10

Additional Readings:

Random USMLE Facts

1. Random USMLE Facts volume 1-1
2. Random USMLE Facts volume 2-1
3. Random USMLE Facts volume 3-1
4. Random USMLE Facts volume 4-1
5. Random USMLE Facts volume 5-1
6. Random USMLE Facts volume 6-1
7. Random USMLE Facts volume 7-1
8. Random USMLE Facts volume 8-1
9. Random USMLE Facts volume 9-1
10. Random USMLE Facts volume 10-1
11. Random USMLE Facts volume 11-1
12. Random USMLE Facts volume 12-1

General and Systemic Examinations

1. General Examination for Internal Medicine
2. Jugular Venous Distention Workup
3. ER Chest Pain Workup
4. Format for Patient Presentation
5. Pulmonary Examination for Internal Medicine
6. Cardiac Examination for Internal Medicine
7. Abdominal Examination for Internal Medicine
8. Cranial Nerve Reflexes
9. Motor System Examination
10. Random Sensory System Facts
11. Random Stroke Facts

Medical Files & Presentations

1. USMLE Flashcards [Size: 1.9 MB; Format: MS Powerpoint]
2. Otitis Media in Children [Size: 5.4 MB; Format: MS Powerpoint]
3. Irritable Bowel Syndrome [Size: 170 kB; Format: MS Powerpoint]
4. Acid-Base Disturbance: Acidotic or Alkalotic? [Size: 427 kB; Format: PDF]
5. Thrombocytopenia [Size: 2.42 MB; Format: MS Powerpoint]
6. Are Face Transplants Ethical? [Size: 70.2 kB; Format: MS Powerpoint]

USMLE Step 2 CS Videos

1. Video of Cardiology Examination in a Clinical Setting
2. Video of Neurology Examination in a Clinical Setting
3. Video of Pulmonology Examination in a Clinical Setting
4. Video of Musculoskeletal Examination in a Clinical Setting
5. Video of Abdominal Examination in a Clinical Setting
6. Video of HEENT Examination in a Clinical Setting
7. Video and Description of Rinne Hearing Test
8. Video and Description of Weber Hearing Test

USMLE Laboratory (lab) Values

1. USMLE Blood Lab Values
2. USMLE Cerebrospinal Lab Values
3. USMLE Hematologic Lab Values
4. USMLE Sweat and Urine Lab Values

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