Random USMLE Facts volume 6-10

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Random USMLE Facts volume 6-10:

USMLE Facts 1 USMLE Facts 2 USMLE Facts 3 USMLE Facts 4 USMLE Facts 5
USMLE Facts 6 USMLE Facts 7 USMLE Facts 8 USMLE Facts 9 USMLE Facts 10

What are the most common malignant neoplasms of the liver?

Tumor metastasis; liver typically displays multiple nodules with marked hepatomegaly.

NOTE: fructose-1-phosphate has the highest rate of metabolism in the glycolytic pathway.

Which organ is most likely to suffer from embolic infarctions?

Kidneys.

What are some findings and causes of emboli development?

Simultaneous development of stroke, intestinal, or foot ischemia, and renal infarction. Some common causes of emboli development include atrial fibrillation, aortic aneurysm, and infective endocartidis.

Which antiarrhythmics have the shortest disassociation time, and what is the significance?

Class IB antiarrhythmics have the shortest disassociation time. This causes class IB antiarrhythmics to bind less avidly to the non-resting sodium channels, and are therefore most selective for rapidly and frequently depolarizing cells. "Weak-binding" drugs love binding to rapidly depolarizing cells. Hence, these drugs shorten action potentials and phase 3 repolarizations. These drugs are useful to treat arrhythmias caused due to ischemic cardiac events, and should not be used to treat atrial or AV nodal dysrhythmias.

Here is a summary of binding speeds:
• Class IB: very rapid binding and release.
• Class IA: intermediate binding.
• Class IC: slow binding and slow release.

What serum electrolytes are monitored in Amphotericin B administration?

K and Mg.

What is a sedative hypnotic drug with anxiolytic, muscle relaxant, and also has anticonvulsant properties?

Benzodiazepines; they cause increased frequency of chloride channel opening.

What is the treatment for aspiration pneumonia caused by S. pneumoniae?

Clindamycin.

What type of proteinuria is seen in nephrotic syndrome?

Highly or poorly selective; more albumin is lost and less bulkier proteins (IgG and macroglobulin) are lost.

What is the diagnostic test for cysteinuria?

Sodium cyanide-nitroprusside. Aminoaciduria is seen. Treatment is hydration and alkalinization of urine.

What is the function of beta-glucuronidase?

Beta-glucuronidase is released by injured hepatocytes and bacteria. Beta-glucuronidase also causes hydrolysis of bilirubin glucuronides and increases the amount of unconjugated bilirubin in urine. Beta-glucuronidase leads to the formation of brown pigment stones.

What are the findings in and causes of peroxisomal disease?

In this disease, peroxisome are either absent or defective. Findings include hypotonia and seizures; there is an inability to oxidize very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA) and phytanic acid. Treatment is strict avoidance of chlorophyll in diet.

What disorders may cause hypervitaminosis D? What are the findings in hypervitaminosis D?

Sarcoidosis, tuberculosis, Hodgkin's disease, and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Findings in hypervitaminosis D include hypercalcemia, hypercalciuria, confusion, polyuria, polydipsia, anorexia, vomiting, muscle weakness, and painful bones.

What type of intestinal polyps can transform into adenocarcinoma?

Adenomatous polyps.

What happens to the thymus in myasthenia gravis?

Patients suffering from myasthenia gravis display thymoma or thymic hyperplasia. Note that the thymus shares its embryological origin with the inferior parathyroid glands (3rd pharyngeal arches).

Hydatidiform moles

• Complete hydatidiform mole: 100% from the father; 46XX.
• Partial hydatidiform mole: mostly from the father; 69XXY or 69XXX.

USMLE Facts 1 USMLE Facts 2 USMLE Facts 3 USMLE Facts 4 USMLE Facts 5
USMLE Facts 6 USMLE Facts 7 USMLE Facts 8 USMLE Facts 9 USMLE Facts 10

Additional Readings:

Random USMLE Facts

1. Random USMLE Facts volume 1-1
2. Random USMLE Facts volume 2-1
3. Random USMLE Facts volume 3-1
4. Random USMLE Facts volume 4-1
5. Random USMLE Facts volume 5-1
6. Random USMLE Facts volume 6-1
7. Random USMLE Facts volume 7-1
8. Random USMLE Facts volume 8-1
9. Random USMLE Facts volume 9-1
10. Random USMLE Facts volume 10-1
11. Random USMLE Facts volume 11-1
12. Random USMLE Facts volume 12-1

General and Systemic Examinations

1. General Examination for Internal Medicine
2. Jugular Venous Distention Workup
3. ER Chest Pain Workup
4. Format for Patient Presentation
5. Pulmonary Examination for Internal Medicine
6. Cardiac Examination for Internal Medicine
7. Abdominal Examination for Internal Medicine
8. Cranial Nerve Reflexes
9. Motor System Examination
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11. Random Stroke Facts

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USMLE Step 2 CS Videos

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3. USMLE Hematologic Lab Values
4. USMLE Sweat and Urine Lab Values

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