Random USMLE Facts volume 6-4

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Random USMLE Facts volume 6-4:

USMLE Facts 1 USMLE Facts 2 USMLE Facts 3 USMLE Facts 4 USMLE Facts 5
USMLE Facts 6 USMLE Facts 7 USMLE Facts 8 USMLE Facts 9 USMLE Facts 10

What is required to perform a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)?

• DNA template.
• Two primers.
• DNA polymerase.
• Deoxynucleoside triphosphates.
• Nucleotide sequence of the regions flanking the target DNA.

What happens during hypoglycemia, and how can these symptoms be prevented?

There is an increased secretion of epinephrine, glucagon, cortisol, and growth hormone. There is increased lipolysis due to increased sympathetic activity, gluconeogenesis in the liver, and decreased peripheral consumption of glucose.
In the end, there are two types of hypoglycemic symptoms:
1. Adrenergic symptoms such as sweating, tremor, palpitations, hunger, and nervousness occur due to epinephrine and norepinephrine release.
2. CNS symptoms develop late and cause confusion, visual disturbances, stupor, and seizures.

Adrenergic symptoms of hypoglycemia can be blunted by using non-selective beta-blockers (propanolol, timolol, and nadolol).

Why shouldn't nonselective beta-blockers be used in diabetic patients?

Nonselective beta-blockers shouldn't be used in diabetic patients because beta2-adrenergic blockers inhibit hepatic gluconeogenesis and peripheral glycogenolysis and lipolysis - further decreasing glucose levels.

When is the S3 or ventricular gallop sound best heard?

During expiration of a patient in the left lateral decubitus position.

What happens to warfarin action during vitamin K deficiency?

Increased warfarin activity.

In the treatment of cystic fibrosis, what is the action of N-acetylcysteine?

N-acetylcysteine works by cleaving the disulfide bonds within mucus glycoproteins, thus, loosening thick sputum.

What are some findings in hemophilia? And that is the treatment?

Prolonged bleeding after tooth extraction and spontaneous hemorrhages into joints. Conditions improve after administering thrombin. Hemophilia occurs due to decreased levels of VIII (type A) or IX (type B).

Which chemotherapeutic agent doesn't require intracellular activation to demonstrate antiviral effect?

Foscarnet.

What is Ortner syndrome?

Impingement of the laryngeal nerve causing hoarseness.

What are some findings in diabetic peripheral neuropathy?

Nerve ischemia; most commonly affected nerve is the oculomotor nerve (CN III). Findings may include ptosis.

What are the neurological effects of vitamin E deficiency?

Degeneration of the spinocerebellar tracts, dorsal column of the spinal cord, and peripheral nerves. Neurological effects of vitamin E deficiency closely mimic Friedreich ataxia.

USMLE Facts 1 USMLE Facts 2 USMLE Facts 3 USMLE Facts 4 USMLE Facts 5
USMLE Facts 6 USMLE Facts 7 USMLE Facts 8 USMLE Facts 9 USMLE Facts 10

Additional Readings:

Random USMLE Facts

1. Random USMLE Facts volume 1-1
2. Random USMLE Facts volume 2-1
3. Random USMLE Facts volume 3-1
4. Random USMLE Facts volume 4-1
5. Random USMLE Facts volume 5-1
6. Random USMLE Facts volume 6-1
7. Random USMLE Facts volume 7-1
8. Random USMLE Facts volume 8-1
9. Random USMLE Facts volume 9-1
10. Random USMLE Facts volume 10-1
11. Random USMLE Facts volume 11-1
12. Random USMLE Facts volume 12-1

General and Systemic Examinations

1. General Examination for Internal Medicine
2. Jugular Venous Distention Workup
3. ER Chest Pain Workup
4. Format for Patient Presentation
5. Pulmonary Examination for Internal Medicine
6. Cardiac Examination for Internal Medicine
7. Abdominal Examination for Internal Medicine
8. Cranial Nerve Reflexes
9. Motor System Examination
10. Random Sensory System Facts
11. Random Stroke Facts

Medical Files & Presentations

1. USMLE Flashcards [Size: 1.9 MB; Format: MS Powerpoint]
2. Otitis Media in Children [Size: 5.4 MB; Format: MS Powerpoint]
3. Irritable Bowel Syndrome [Size: 170 kB; Format: MS Powerpoint]
4. Acid-Base Disturbance: Acidotic or Alkalotic? [Size: 427 kB; Format: PDF]
5. Thrombocytopenia [Size: 2.42 MB; Format: MS Powerpoint]
6. Are Face Transplants Ethical? [Size: 70.2 kB; Format: MS Powerpoint]

USMLE Step 2 CS Videos

1. Video of Cardiology Examination in a Clinical Setting
2. Video of Neurology Examination in a Clinical Setting
3. Video of Pulmonology Examination in a Clinical Setting
4. Video of Musculoskeletal Examination in a Clinical Setting
5. Video of Abdominal Examination in a Clinical Setting
6. Video of HEENT Examination in a Clinical Setting
7. Video and Description of Rinne Hearing Test
8. Video and Description of Weber Hearing Test

USMLE Laboratory (lab) Values

1. USMLE Blood Lab Values
2. USMLE Cerebrospinal Lab Values
3. USMLE Hematologic Lab Values
4. USMLE Sweat and Urine Lab Values

Medical Images

Useful Medical Images & Diagrams (link opens in a new window)

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