Random USMLE Facts volume 6-9

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Random USMLE Facts volume 6-9:

USMLE Facts 1 USMLE Facts 2 USMLE Facts 3 USMLE Facts 4 USMLE Facts 5
USMLE Facts 6 USMLE Facts 7 USMLE Facts 8 USMLE Facts 9 USMLE Facts 10

What is basal gastric acid secretion?

This is acid secretion in the absence of food, essentially, the baseline gastric acid secretion.

What are baroreceptors and where are they located?

Baroreceptors monitor the systemic blood pressure by sensing arterial wall stretch. When stimulated, baroreceptors produce signals that cause blood pressure decrease through peripheral vasodilation and decreased cardiac output. Baroreceptors are located in the carotid sinus and aortic arch baroreceptors. Hering's nerve (branch of the glossopharyngeal nerve) transmit signals from the carotid sinus. The vagus nerve transmits signals from the aortic arch baroreceptors. Afferent receptors from both sets of baroreceptors terminate in the solitary nucleus of the medulla. Carotid sinus syncope occurs in patients with very sensitive carotid sinus baroreceptors, and these patients may experience dizziness by pressure applied on their carotid sinus e.g., while buttoning a shirt.

What is the function of mullerian inhibiting factor (MIF)?

Mullerian inhibiting factor causes regression of female internal genetalia. MIF = "male maker."

Where does hydroxylation of proline and lysine take place within a cell?

Rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER). In fact, all secreted hormones are handled by the RER.

What may be a pulmonary complication in PKU?

Respiratory infection.

What may be a fatal complication of acute rheumatic fever?

Mitral regurgitation and heart failure. Rare fatalities can occur due to severe myocarditis.

What is a finding in chronic rheumatic fever?

Fibrosis of the valve leaflets, which cause mitral stenosis.

What physical activities can exacerbate the systolic ejection murmur in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy?

Suddenly standing from supine position and the Valsalva maneuver.

How do second generation cephalosporins destroy bacteria?

Cephalosporins inhibit cell wall synthesis, and this exposes bacteria to a hypotonic environment and this causes rapid disintegration of the bacteris.

What is the difference between suppression and repression?

Suppression is the conscious removal of disturbing material from conscious awareness, and repression is unconscious removal of disturbing material from conscious awareness.

What is the mechanism of action of timolol in relation to glaucoma treatment?

Glaucoma can be treated by beta blockers like timolol which decreases humor production by action on the ciliary epithelium.

What nerve provides general sensation from the tonsillar lining?

CN IX.

What nerve provides sensation from the anterior 2/3rd of the tongue?

CN VII.

What nerves mediate salivary secretion from the submandibular gland and the sublingual gland?

Parasympathetic fibers originating from the CN VII.

What nerve mediates protrusion of the tongue?

CN XII.

What is the most common cause of acute renal failure in children?

Hemolytic uremic syndrome - most likely a complication of E. coli (O157:H7 strain) or S. dysenteriae infection in the bowel.

What are the functions of the various hypothalamic nuclei?

• Lateral nuclei: hunger; lesions would cause one to lose the desire to eat.
• Suprachiasmatic nuclei: visual input from the retina via the optic tract.
• Supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei: production of ADH and oxytocin.
• Anterior nuclei: sweating and vasodilation (cools down the body).
• Posterior nuclei: heats up the body.
• Ventromedial nuclei: regulation of food intake; lesions would cause obesity.

USMLE Facts 1 USMLE Facts 2 USMLE Facts 3 USMLE Facts 4 USMLE Facts 5
USMLE Facts 6 USMLE Facts 7 USMLE Facts 8 USMLE Facts 9 USMLE Facts 10

Additional Readings:

Random USMLE Facts

1. Random USMLE Facts volume 1-1
2. Random USMLE Facts volume 2-1
3. Random USMLE Facts volume 3-1
4. Random USMLE Facts volume 4-1
5. Random USMLE Facts volume 5-1
6. Random USMLE Facts volume 6-1
7. Random USMLE Facts volume 7-1
8. Random USMLE Facts volume 8-1
9. Random USMLE Facts volume 9-1
10. Random USMLE Facts volume 10-1
11. Random USMLE Facts volume 11-1
12. Random USMLE Facts volume 12-1

General and Systemic Examinations

1. General Examination for Internal Medicine
2. Jugular Venous Distention Workup
3. ER Chest Pain Workup
4. Format for Patient Presentation
5. Pulmonary Examination for Internal Medicine
6. Cardiac Examination for Internal Medicine
7. Abdominal Examination for Internal Medicine
8. Cranial Nerve Reflexes
9. Motor System Examination
10. Random Sensory System Facts
11. Random Stroke Facts

Medical Files & Presentations

1. USMLE Flashcards [Size: 1.9 MB; Format: MS Powerpoint]
2. Otitis Media in Children [Size: 5.4 MB; Format: MS Powerpoint]
3. Irritable Bowel Syndrome [Size: 170 kB; Format: MS Powerpoint]
4. Acid-Base Disturbance: Acidotic or Alkalotic? [Size: 427 kB; Format: PDF]
5. Thrombocytopenia [Size: 2.42 MB; Format: MS Powerpoint]
6. Are Face Transplants Ethical? [Size: 70.2 kB; Format: MS Powerpoint]

USMLE Step 2 CS Videos

1. Video of Cardiology Examination in a Clinical Setting
2. Video of Neurology Examination in a Clinical Setting
3. Video of Pulmonology Examination in a Clinical Setting
4. Video of Musculoskeletal Examination in a Clinical Setting
5. Video of Abdominal Examination in a Clinical Setting
6. Video of HEENT Examination in a Clinical Setting
7. Video and Description of Rinne Hearing Test
8. Video and Description of Weber Hearing Test

USMLE Laboratory (lab) Values

1. USMLE Blood Lab Values
2. USMLE Cerebrospinal Lab Values
3. USMLE Hematologic Lab Values
4. USMLE Sweat and Urine Lab Values

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