Random USMLE Facts volume 6-5

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Random USMLE Facts volume 6-5:

USMLE Facts 1 USMLE Facts 2 USMLE Facts 3 USMLE Facts 4 USMLE Facts 5
USMLE Facts 6 USMLE Facts 7 USMLE Facts 8 USMLE Facts 9 USMLE Facts 10

How is risk calculated?

Risk is the measure of the incidence of disease. Risk = [number of diseased subjects / total number of subjects in the corresponding group].

What is delusional disorder?

These patients are characterized by bizarre delusions for at least a month; patient may report being followed, cheated, or poisoned. Needless to say, the patient has led a normal life and was never hospitalized.

What wound happen when benzodiazepines are used with first generation histamine blockers like diphenhydramine and chlorpheniramine?

Significant sedation.

What kind of bacterial endocarditis occurs in elderly men?

Enterococcal endocarditis - after procedure done in or near colonized by these organisms. Similar infections can occur in women who have undergone obstetrical procedures. Enterococci are Lancefield Group D streptococci that are Gram positive, gamma-hemolytic, and can be cultured in hypertonic 6.5% saline and bile. Eg., Enterococcus faecium.

What cells predominate the lavage fluid in patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis?

CD4+ lymphocytes.

What happens when metronidazole is consumed with alcohol?

Disulfiram-like reaction: facial flushing, headache, nausea, vomiting, and abdominal cramps.

In multiple sclerosis, what axon parameter is changed?

Space constant - impaired impulse transmission due to demyelination.

What are some complications of obstructive sleep apnea?

Pulmonary hypertension and right heart failure.

Is dysplasia reversible?

Yes.

Decreased activity of what enzyme of the pancreatic beta cells can cause hyperglycemia especially in pregnancy?

Glucokinase. See: Notes on Glycolysis and Pyruvate Dehydrogenase

What is the cause of an annular pancreas?

Annular pancreas results when the ventral pancreatic bud cleaves into two parts which form a ring around the descending portion of the duodenum and fuse with the dorsal bud from two sides. An annular pancreas can cause duodenal stenosis.

How does the vasopressin test work in the diagnosis of diabetes insipidus?

Vasopressin injection is administered to the patient; if urine osmolarity changes to within 10% of the original, it is nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. However, if urine osmolarity changes to more than 10% of the original, it is central diabetes insipidus.

Which step of the urea cycle requires n-acetylglutamate as a substrate?

The first step (and rate limiting step): [CO + NH3] to carbamoyl phosphate.

What are the different types of lymph node hyperplasia?

• Reactive hyperplasia: benign, reversible enlargement of lymphoid tissue due to antigenic stimulus. This occurs due to polyclonal proliferation of lymphocytes (clonal T cell receptor gene arrangement).
• Follicular hyperplasia: increase in the number and size of follicles.
• Sinus hyperplasia: sinuses fill with histiocytes and enlarge.
• Diffuse hyperplasia: nodal architecture is diffusely affected with lymphocytes, immunoblasts, and macrophages.

What part of the ear detects low-frequency sound?

Helicotrema ~ apex of the cochlea.

What part of the ear detects high-frequency sound?

Oval and round windows ~ base of the cochlea.

What is the molecular defect in ataxia telangiectasia?

Inability to repair damaged DNA.

USMLE Facts 1 USMLE Facts 2 USMLE Facts 3 USMLE Facts 4 USMLE Facts 5
USMLE Facts 6 USMLE Facts 7 USMLE Facts 8 USMLE Facts 9 USMLE Facts 10

Additional Readings:

Random USMLE Facts

1. Random USMLE Facts volume 1-1
2. Random USMLE Facts volume 2-1
3. Random USMLE Facts volume 3-1
4. Random USMLE Facts volume 4-1
5. Random USMLE Facts volume 5-1
6. Random USMLE Facts volume 6-1
7. Random USMLE Facts volume 7-1
8. Random USMLE Facts volume 8-1
9. Random USMLE Facts volume 9-1
10. Random USMLE Facts volume 10-1
11. Random USMLE Facts volume 11-1
12. Random USMLE Facts volume 12-1

General and Systemic Examinations

1. General Examination for Internal Medicine
2. Jugular Venous Distention Workup
3. ER Chest Pain Workup
4. Format for Patient Presentation
5. Pulmonary Examination for Internal Medicine
6. Cardiac Examination for Internal Medicine
7. Abdominal Examination for Internal Medicine
8. Cranial Nerve Reflexes
9. Motor System Examination
10. Random Sensory System Facts
11. Random Stroke Facts

Medical Files & Presentations

1. USMLE Flashcards [Size: 1.9 MB; Format: MS Powerpoint]
2. Otitis Media in Children [Size: 5.4 MB; Format: MS Powerpoint]
3. Irritable Bowel Syndrome [Size: 170 kB; Format: MS Powerpoint]
4. Acid-Base Disturbance: Acidotic or Alkalotic? [Size: 427 kB; Format: PDF]
5. Thrombocytopenia [Size: 2.42 MB; Format: MS Powerpoint]
6. Are Face Transplants Ethical? [Size: 70.2 kB; Format: MS Powerpoint]

USMLE Step 2 CS Videos

1. Video of Cardiology Examination in a Clinical Setting
2. Video of Neurology Examination in a Clinical Setting
3. Video of Pulmonology Examination in a Clinical Setting
4. Video of Musculoskeletal Examination in a Clinical Setting
5. Video of Abdominal Examination in a Clinical Setting
6. Video of HEENT Examination in a Clinical Setting
7. Video and Description of Rinne Hearing Test
8. Video and Description of Weber Hearing Test

USMLE Laboratory (lab) Values

1. USMLE Blood Lab Values
2. USMLE Cerebrospinal Lab Values
3. USMLE Hematologic Lab Values
4. USMLE Sweat and Urine Lab Values

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