Notes on Human Immunodeficiency Virus

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Human Immunodeficiency Virus:

• Positive-sense; ssRNA virus.

HIV Viral Genes:

Gag: structural proteins like p24 and p7.

Pol: reverse transcriptase/integrase/protease.

Env: gp120 and gp41.

Tat: upregulator of transcription.

Rev: upregulator of transport of products of transcription to cytoplasm.

Nef: downregulator.

Summary of HIV Infection:

1. gp120 binds CD4 of TH cells/macrophages/microglia.

2. HIV taken into cell; RNA uncoated.

3. dsDNA made from RNA using reverse transcriptase.

4. dsDNA integrated into host DNA; provirus made; provirus remains in host DNA.

5. Transcription of host DNA also produces viral ss (+) RNAs.

6. New proteins made.

7. Assembly.

8. Maturation/release.

CDC categories:

A: acute or asymptomatic; persistent generalized lymphadenopathy.

B: symptomatic; candidiasis; hairy leukoplakia; PID; peripheral neuropathy; idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura.

C: AIDS defining conditions; fungal/carcinomas/viral/parasitic/bacterial infections.

Diagnosis:

• Screening: ELISA.

• Confirmation: Western blot / immunofluorescence.

• Detection of infection in newborns of HIV+ moms: DNA/PCR.

Additional Readings:

Basic Virology

1. Immune defences against viruses
2. Viral Hepatitis
3. DNA viruses
4. Positive-sense RNA viruses
5. Human Immunodeficiency Virus
6. Negative sense RNA viruses
7. Double stranded RNA Viruses
8. Viruses associated with cancer
9. Generalized vs specialized transduction
10. Hepatitis serologic markers
11. Bacterial vs viral infections
12. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections and AIDS
13. Steps When Patient is Newly Diagnosed with HIV

Related Topics

1. Prenatal Infections

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