Notes on Primary Response to Antigen

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• Too small to induce immune response.

Extravasation of Phagocytes:

• Rolling, activation by chemoattractants (eg., IL-8, LTB4), arrest and adhesion, and transendothelial migration.

Leukocyte adhesion deficiency:

• Absence of CD18; leukocytes don't undergo adhesion; omphalitis, swelling and inflammation of umbilical cord.


• If antigen is coated with IgG or C3B, phagocytosis is 4000 times stronger.

Inside Macrophage:

• Respiratory burst.

NADPH Oxidase:

• Neutralizes superoxide; creates hydroxyl radical and hydrogen peroxide; oxygen-independent.


• Uses NADPH oxidase-produced hydrogen peroxide and chloride ion to create microbicidal hypochlorite; oxygen-dependent.

Chronic Granulomatous Disease (CGD):

• Deficient NADPH oxidase; person will be infected with catalase+ (but not catalase-) organisms.

• Oxygen-independent mechanism kills: catalase-positive organisms; oxygen-dependent mechanism kills: catalase-negative organisms.

Additional Readings:

Basic Immunology

1. Introduction to Immunology
2. Cells of Immunology
3. Selection of Lymphocytes
4. Primary Response to Antigen
5. Antigen Processing and Presentation
6. Humoral Effector Mechanism Generator
7. Cell-Mediated Effector Mechanism Generator
8. Vaccination and Immunotherapy
9. Immunodeficiency Diseases
10. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
11. Hypersensitivities and Autoimmunity Diseases
12. Immunology of Transplantation
13. Immunology of Cancer
14. Immunology Laboratory Technology
15. Acquired Immunity
16. Type II Hypersensitivity Reaction
17. Hypersensitivity Reactions
18. Primary Immunodeficiency
19. Secondary Immunodeficiency
20. Type III Hypersensitivity Reaction
21. Type IV Hypersensitivity Reaction
22. Type V Hypersensitivity Reaction
23. Tumor Immunology
24. Images of Antibodies
25. Th1 vs Th2 cells

Related Topics

1. Histology of Lymphoid Tissue

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