Notes on Cell-Mediated Effector Mechanism Generator

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Role of Cell-Medited Immunity:

• Cell mediated immunity is designed to eradicate infection originating from inside the cells of the body.

• Main cells are: Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes, macrophages, and NK cells.

TH1 cells:

• Activate Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes, macrophages, NKs.

Macrophages activated by:

• INF-gamma (most important), TNF-alpha, and TNF-beta.

Delayed Type Hypersensitivity:

• TH1 cytokine-activated macrophages cause damage.

Role of Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes:

• Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes recognize transplanted cells as foreign due to HLA polymorphism.

MHC I deficiency causes:

• CD8+ T cell deficiency.

Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes kill by:

• Attachment, activation, exocytosis, detachment.

• FasL/Fas protein on CTL binds to its complementary Fas on target cell.

Natural Killer Cells:

• Activity increased in the presence of INFs alpha and beta, and IL-12.

Two types of NK receptors:

• Activation receptor and inhibition receptor.

• Cells not displaying the MHC I molecule will be killed by the NK cell.


• Bridges the humoral and cell-mediated immunity.

• Cells: NK, macrophages/monocytes, neutrophils, eosinophils.

Viral evasion of Cell mediated immunity:

Fast viruses:

• Replicate until TH1 response turns Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes on.

Slow viruses:

• Deactivate the production of MHC I receptor (hence, protected from Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes).


• Deactivates MHC I production, and also makes a fake MHC I to fool NKs.

Additional Readings:

Basic Immunology

1. Introduction to Immunology
2. Cells of Immunology
3. Selection of Lymphocytes
4. Primary Response to Antigen
5. Antigen Processing and Presentation
6. Humoral Effector Mechanism Generator
7. Cell-Mediated Effector Mechanism Generator
8. Vaccination and Immunotherapy
9. Immunodeficiency Diseases
10. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
11. Hypersensitivities and Autoimmunity Diseases
12. Immunology of Transplantation
13. Immunology of Cancer
14. Immunology Laboratory Technology
15. Acquired Immunity
16. Type II Hypersensitivity Reaction
17. Hypersensitivity Reactions
18. Primary Immunodeficiency
19. Secondary Immunodeficiency
20. Type III Hypersensitivity Reaction
21. Type IV Hypersensitivity Reaction
22. Type V Hypersensitivity Reaction
23. Tumor Immunology
24. Images of Antibodies
25. Th1 vs Th2 cells

Related Topics

1. Histology of Lymphoid Tissue

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