Notes on Acquired Immunity

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Naturally Acquired Immunity:

• Important role played by T and B cells, which transform some of themselves into memory cells.

• Memory cells remain for many years. This natural immunity is transferred from mother to infant.

Artificially Acquired Immunity:

• Passive: Antibodies from one individual are transferred to another. This temporary.

• Active: This is done through vaccination.

Humoral Immunity:

• B cells and plasma cells produce antibodies and summon T cells to attack antigens marked by antibodies.

• Fab heavy- and light-chain variable regions (VH and VL) of the antibody are bind to antigen, leading to exposed Fc regions, and activating components of the innate.

• When Fc is exposed, complement pathway protein C1q binds to it and activates the classical complement pathway.

• Antigen processing requires 4 routes: Uptake, degradation, complex formation, and presentation.

• Complex formation is done through uploading antigen parts in MHC molecules. MHC molecules serve as "arms" that present antigen parts to T-cells.

B cell antibody production results from three types of antigens:

1. T-dependent antigens which are engulfed by B cells and presented on MHC II molecules to T-cells.

2. Type I thymus independent antigens (bacterial LPS).

3. Type II thymus independent antigens (linear polypeptides, pneumococcus polysaccharides, and polyvinylpyrilidone).

• Receptors on B-cells recognize epitopes on surfaces of antigens. It the epitope matches, the B-cell proliferates and makes more B-cells with the same receptors.

Additional Readings:

Basic Immunology

1. Introduction to Immunology
2. Cells of Immunology
3. Selection of Lymphocytes
4. Primary Response to Antigen
5. Antigen Processing and Presentation
6. Humoral Effector Mechanism Generator
7. Cell-Mediated Effector Mechanism Generator
8. Vaccination and Immunotherapy
9. Immunodeficiency Diseases
10. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
11. Hypersensitivities and Autoimmunity Diseases
12. Immunology of Transplantation
13. Immunology of Cancer
14. Immunology Laboratory Technology
15. Acquired Immunity
16. Type II Hypersensitivity Reaction
17. Hypersensitivity Reactions
18. Primary Immunodeficiency
19. Secondary Immunodeficiency
20. Type III Hypersensitivity Reaction
21. Type IV Hypersensitivity Reaction
22. Type V Hypersensitivity Reaction
23. Tumor Immunology
24. Images of Antibodies
25. Th1 vs Th2 cells

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1. Histology of Lymphoid Tissue

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