Random USMLE Facts volume 5-2

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Random USMLE Facts volume 5-2:

USMLE Facts 1 USMLE Facts 2 USMLE Facts 3 USMLE Facts 4 USMLE Facts 5
USMLE Facts 6 USMLE Facts 7 USMLE Facts 8 USMLE Facts 9 USMLE Facts 10

What is the most common cause of nephrotic syndrome in children?

Minimal change disease.

What drugs can precipitate renal failure in nephrotic syndrome?

NSAIDs (eg., indomethacin). ACE inhibitors may be used, but they may cause hyperkalemia.

Why does a heart with aortic stenosis have increased coronary blood flow during diastole?

A heart with aortic stenosis has increased work load, and this requires increased oxygen consumption. However, the amount of blood entering the coronary arteries remains constant. A heart with aortic stenosis is enlarged, and this causes compression of the coronary arteries, which in turn causes systolic blood flow to decrease greatly. To compensate, increased blood flow only occurs during diastole.

What is the treatment for pustular acne?

Tetracycline.

What type of toxin causes scarlet fever?

Toxin released by S. pyogenes; this is a pyrogenic exotoxin that is phage-encoded. S. Pyogenes also contains protein M.

What drugs can increase the risk of pregnancy by increasing oral contraceptive metabolism?

Drugs that can increase cytochrome P450 activity (eg., rifampin).

What are some findings in granulomatous giant cell or de Quervain thyroiditis?

This condition is thought to be caused by a viral infection; findings include hyperthyroidism followed by hyperthyroidism. Histological findings include heavy mononuclear cell infiltrate with multinucleated giant cells, follicular disruption, and loss of colloid.

In Turner's syndrome, what happens to the ovaries?

Ovarian secretions fail to provide feedback, and this causes increased FSH and delayed puberty. The best way to get pregnant in Turner's syndrome is through in vitro fertilizaiton.

What are the histological findings in rheumatoid arthritis?

Fibrinoid necrosis surrounded by palisading epithelioid cells.

What type of protein defect exists in Marfan syndrome?

Extracellular matrix protein defect; defective fibrillin.

What artery is occluded in Broca aphasia?

Left middle cerebral artery.

How do the greater and the lesser omental sacs connect?

Through the foramen of Winslow. Also note that the foramen of Winslow is bounded by the common bile duct, duodenum, and stomach. Thus, disease of the large bowel can spread to the stomach and duodenum via this route. The portal vein, common bile duct and hepatic artery lie in the free edge of the lesser omentum.

What is the usage of ammonium chloride?

Ammonium chloride is used to treat electrolyte abnormalities. Furthermore, ammonium chloride may interact with salsalate (used to treat osteoarthritis).

What is polyarteritis nodosa?

This condition affects small and medium-sized muscular arteries, and occurs in young adults as a complication to hepatitis B or C. Polyarteritis nodosa usually occurs in the GI tract and kidneys, and can cause fever, weight loss, malaise, abdominal pain, diarrhea, GI bleeding. Hostoligal findings reveal fibrinoid necrosis, fibroblastic proliferation and fibrotic thickening of the vessel wall.

What organism is most likely to infect water at recreational facilities in the United States?

Leptospira interrogans - it lives in urine.

How are mutated penicillin-binding proteins transferred from one S. aureus to another S.aureus?

Generalized transduction following an accident of the life cycle of a virulent phage.

How is viral load determined in HIV patients?

Using HIV reverse transcriptase-PCR.

What effect does decreased hematocrit have on tissues?

Decreased blood viscosity, tissue oxygen tension, and vascular resistance; increased arteriolar diameter due to hypoxia.

USMLE Facts 1 USMLE Facts 2 USMLE Facts 3 USMLE Facts 4 USMLE Facts 5
USMLE Facts 6 USMLE Facts 7 USMLE Facts 8 USMLE Facts 9 USMLE Facts 10

Additional Readings:

Random USMLE Facts

1. Random USMLE Facts volume 1-1
2. Random USMLE Facts volume 2-1
3. Random USMLE Facts volume 3-1
4. Random USMLE Facts volume 4-1
5. Random USMLE Facts volume 5-1
6. Random USMLE Facts volume 6-1
7. Random USMLE Facts volume 7-1
8. Random USMLE Facts volume 8-1
9. Random USMLE Facts volume 9-1
10. Random USMLE Facts volume 10-1
11. Random USMLE Facts volume 11-1
12. Random USMLE Facts volume 12-1

General and Systemic Examinations

1. General Examination for Internal Medicine
2. Jugular Venous Distention Workup
3. ER Chest Pain Workup
4. Format for Patient Presentation
5. Pulmonary Examination for Internal Medicine
6. Cardiac Examination for Internal Medicine
7. Abdominal Examination for Internal Medicine
8. Cranial Nerve Reflexes
9. Motor System Examination
10. Random Sensory System Facts
11. Random Stroke Facts

Medical Files & Presentations

1. USMLE Flashcards [Size: 1.9 MB; Format: MS Powerpoint]
2. Otitis Media in Children [Size: 5.4 MB; Format: MS Powerpoint]
3. Irritable Bowel Syndrome [Size: 170 kB; Format: MS Powerpoint]
4. Acid-Base Disturbance: Acidotic or Alkalotic? [Size: 427 kB; Format: PDF]
5. Thrombocytopenia [Size: 2.42 MB; Format: MS Powerpoint]
6. Are Face Transplants Ethical? [Size: 70.2 kB; Format: MS Powerpoint]

USMLE Step 2 CS Videos

1. Video of Cardiology Examination in a Clinical Setting
2. Video of Neurology Examination in a Clinical Setting
3. Video of Pulmonology Examination in a Clinical Setting
4. Video of Musculoskeletal Examination in a Clinical Setting
5. Video of Abdominal Examination in a Clinical Setting
6. Video of HEENT Examination in a Clinical Setting
7. Video and Description of Rinne Hearing Test
8. Video and Description of Weber Hearing Test

USMLE Laboratory (lab) Values

1. USMLE Blood Lab Values
2. USMLE Cerebrospinal Lab Values
3. USMLE Hematologic Lab Values
4. USMLE Sweat and Urine Lab Values

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