Random USMLE Facts volume 5-7

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Random USMLE Facts volume 5-7:

USMLE Facts 1 USMLE Facts 2 USMLE Facts 3 USMLE Facts 4 USMLE Facts 5
USMLE Facts 6 USMLE Facts 7 USMLE Facts 8 USMLE Facts 9 USMLE Facts 10

What causes white spots in skin?

Malassezia furfur.

What may be some side-effects of nitroglycerin and isosorbide?

Headaches and flushing due to their vasodilatory properties.

What is temporal arteritis?

Temporal arteritis is the inflammation of medium-sized and large arteries. Temporal arteritis is also called giant cell vasculitis. There is narrowing of the blood vessel and decreased perfusion to the affected tissue. Temporal arteritis affects people in the 60s, and common findings include: headache, jaw/tongue claudication, facial pain, vision loss, and polymyalgia rheumatica. Specific findings in polymyalgia rheumatica include neck/torso, shoulder, and pelvic pain, and morning stiffness. Pathology shows granulomatous inflammation of the media.

What are some findings in primary biliary cirrhosis?

Fat, female, 40s; history of pruritus and fatigue; pale stools and xanthelasma. Also see: Notes on Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Disorders

What superficial infections are virtually diagnostic of HIV?

Viral esophagitis and pneumocystis pneumonia.

How is the diagnosis of Cryptococcus neoformans made?

• India ink stain of CSF.
• Latex agglutination of CSF.
• Culture (Sabouraud's agar).
• Methenamine (GMS), mucicarmine stains of tissue.

How would you calculate relative risk reduction (RRR)? [New drug vs standard care]

• RRR = [Risk (control) - Risk (treatment)] / Risk (control).
Where:
• Risk (control) = recurrence rate on standard therapy.
• RRR = rate of disease recurrence after treatment.
• Risk (treatment) = maximal incidence of the disease on standard therapy + new drug treatment.

How does Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection occur?

AIDS patients; findings include weight loss, fevers, and severe weakness. Treatment would be azithromycin.

What is the RANK-ligand?

The RANK-ligand governs the differentiation of osteoclasts. Over-expression of the RANK-ligand can lead to increased bone resorption.

What is the most commonly injured nerve in the leg?

Peroneal nerve; the affect leg is slapped on the floor while walking.

What problem does silicosis produce in the immune system, and what disease results as a result?

Silicosis causes impaired macrophage function, and this causes tuberculosis.

What is the fatal side-effect of digoxin therapy?

Arrhythmia.

What is the mechanism of action of growth factor?

Growth factor leads to auto-phosphorylation of the receptor, which leads to the production of phosphotyrosine, which in turn leads to Ras activation through GTP binding. Finally, an activated Ras transmits the signal to MAP (mitogen-activated protein) kinase which enters the nucleus to influence gene transcription.

What activity is increased in contracture formation?

Metalloproteinase activity and actin-containing fibroblastic activity.

What factor determines the severity of tetralogy of Fallot?

Pulmonary stenosis.

What are some findings in Tropheyrma whippelii infection?

Abdominal discomfort, greasy stools, weight loss; multiple macrophages loaded with PAS+ granules. Pretreatment with NSAIDs may increase vulnerability. Treatment would be antibiotics.

USMLE Facts 1 USMLE Facts 2 USMLE Facts 3 USMLE Facts 4 USMLE Facts 5
USMLE Facts 6 USMLE Facts 7 USMLE Facts 8 USMLE Facts 9 USMLE Facts 10

Additional Readings:

Random USMLE Facts

1. Random USMLE Facts volume 1-1
2. Random USMLE Facts volume 2-1
3. Random USMLE Facts volume 3-1
4. Random USMLE Facts volume 4-1
5. Random USMLE Facts volume 5-1
6. Random USMLE Facts volume 6-1
7. Random USMLE Facts volume 7-1
8. Random USMLE Facts volume 8-1
9. Random USMLE Facts volume 9-1
10. Random USMLE Facts volume 10-1
11. Random USMLE Facts volume 11-1
12. Random USMLE Facts volume 12-1

General and Systemic Examinations

1. General Examination for Internal Medicine
2. Jugular Venous Distention Workup
3. ER Chest Pain Workup
4. Format for Patient Presentation
5. Pulmonary Examination for Internal Medicine
6. Cardiac Examination for Internal Medicine
7. Abdominal Examination for Internal Medicine
8. Cranial Nerve Reflexes
9. Motor System Examination
10. Random Sensory System Facts
11. Random Stroke Facts

Medical Files & Presentations

1. USMLE Flashcards [Size: 1.9 MB; Format: MS Powerpoint]
2. Otitis Media in Children [Size: 5.4 MB; Format: MS Powerpoint]
3. Irritable Bowel Syndrome [Size: 170 kB; Format: MS Powerpoint]
4. Acid-Base Disturbance: Acidotic or Alkalotic? [Size: 427 kB; Format: PDF]
5. Thrombocytopenia [Size: 2.42 MB; Format: MS Powerpoint]
6. Are Face Transplants Ethical? [Size: 70.2 kB; Format: MS Powerpoint]

USMLE Step 2 CS Videos

1. Video of Cardiology Examination in a Clinical Setting
2. Video of Neurology Examination in a Clinical Setting
3. Video of Pulmonology Examination in a Clinical Setting
4. Video of Musculoskeletal Examination in a Clinical Setting
5. Video of Abdominal Examination in a Clinical Setting
6. Video of HEENT Examination in a Clinical Setting
7. Video and Description of Rinne Hearing Test
8. Video and Description of Weber Hearing Test

USMLE Laboratory (lab) Values

1. USMLE Blood Lab Values
2. USMLE Cerebrospinal Lab Values
3. USMLE Hematologic Lab Values
4. USMLE Sweat and Urine Lab Values

Medical Images

Useful Medical Images & Diagrams (link opens in a new window)

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