Random USMLE Facts volume 5-4

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Random USMLE Facts volume 5-4:

USMLE Facts 1 USMLE Facts 2 USMLE Facts 3 USMLE Facts 4 USMLE Facts 5
USMLE Facts 6 USMLE Facts 7 USMLE Facts 8 USMLE Facts 9 USMLE Facts 10

What lymph nodes involved in primary/metastatic cancer?

See: Notes on Lymphoid Tissue Disorders

Bence-Jones protein: Kappa light chains.

What is a typical blood pressure in aortic regurgitation?

160/50; inefficient aortic valve causes a wide pulse pressure (wide difference between systolic and diastolic pressure).

What liver enzymes are released in hepatic injury?

ALT and AST.

What does prostatic hyperplasia do to the urinary bladder?

Compensatory hypertrophy due to impediment to urine outflow.

What would be the best treatment for hypertension in polycystic kidney disease?

ACE inhibitor.

What is the other name for MEN I?

Wermer syndrome - renal stones and stomach ulcers together with VIPoma.

Both cardiac and skeletal muscle contract when calcium binds to?

Troponin.

What stain is used to confirm hemochromatosis?

Prussian blue stain.

What is unique about the hepatitis B envelope?

The hepatitis B envelope component (HBsAg) forms spheres and tubules 22nm in diameter.

What is processus vaginalis?

Testes are located in the peritoneal cavity during the early fetal life. While the testes descend into the scrotum, a structure called processus vaginalis follows the testes and obliterates after the descent is complete. However, if the processus vaginalis does not obliterate, hydrocele can occur in the child. One complication of this anomaly is indirect inguinal hernia.

What are some findings in Gardnerella vaginalis infection?

Gardnerella vaginalis is a Gram negative rod that causes bacterial vaginosis. There is a grey discharge and a fishy odor. Wet mount microscopy reveals clue cells (Gardnerella vaginalis organisms). Treatment is oral metronidazole.

What happens when ischemic colitis develops secondary to systemic hypotension?

Ischemic colitis develops secondary to systemic hypotension when there is low perfusion of bowel secondary to surgery. The splenic flexure is distributed between the superior mesenteric artery and the inferior mesenteric artery - this is also called a watershed infarction. Findings include abdominal pain and diarrhea.

What are the types of infectious urethritis and the treatments?

There are two types: gonococcal and non-gonococcal. Note that gonococcal urethritis is caused by N. gonorrhea, and co-infection by C. trachomatis can occur. The treatment would be ceftriaxone and azithromycin.

For non-gonococcal urethritis, which is caused by C. trachomatis, treatment would be any macrolide antibiotics like erythromycin and azithromycin.

How is 6-mercaptopurine inactivated?

It is inactivated by xanthine oxidase.

During acute tubular necrosis, what part of the nephron is most likely to suffer from ischemic injury?

Proximal tubule.

How is haemophilus influenza vaccine created?

Haemophilus influenza type b (Hib) vaccine consists of polyribitol ribose phosphate (PRP) derived from the capsule of haemophilus influenza couple with diphtheria or tetanus toxin. There is a reason for this coupling: it increases immunogenicity.

This is done because infants acquire their immunity against haemophilus influenza through the IgG antibody through the mother. However, this immunity fades away during the first months of life. Nevertheless, this coupling causes T-cell dependent stimulation of B-lymphocytes to undergo class-switching from IgM to IgG, and the production of B-lymphocytes.

USMLE Facts 1 USMLE Facts 2 USMLE Facts 3 USMLE Facts 4 USMLE Facts 5
USMLE Facts 6 USMLE Facts 7 USMLE Facts 8 USMLE Facts 9 USMLE Facts 10

Additional Readings:

Random USMLE Facts

1. Random USMLE Facts volume 1-1
2. Random USMLE Facts volume 2-1
3. Random USMLE Facts volume 3-1
4. Random USMLE Facts volume 4-1
5. Random USMLE Facts volume 5-1
6. Random USMLE Facts volume 6-1
7. Random USMLE Facts volume 7-1
8. Random USMLE Facts volume 8-1
9. Random USMLE Facts volume 9-1
10. Random USMLE Facts volume 10-1
11. Random USMLE Facts volume 11-1
12. Random USMLE Facts volume 12-1

General and Systemic Examinations

1. General Examination for Internal Medicine
2. Jugular Venous Distention Workup
3. ER Chest Pain Workup
4. Format for Patient Presentation
5. Pulmonary Examination for Internal Medicine
6. Cardiac Examination for Internal Medicine
7. Abdominal Examination for Internal Medicine
8. Cranial Nerve Reflexes
9. Motor System Examination
10. Random Sensory System Facts
11. Random Stroke Facts

Medical Files & Presentations

1. USMLE Flashcards [Size: 1.9 MB; Format: MS Powerpoint]
2. Otitis Media in Children [Size: 5.4 MB; Format: MS Powerpoint]
3. Irritable Bowel Syndrome [Size: 170 kB; Format: MS Powerpoint]
4. Acid-Base Disturbance: Acidotic or Alkalotic? [Size: 427 kB; Format: PDF]
5. Thrombocytopenia [Size: 2.42 MB; Format: MS Powerpoint]
6. Are Face Transplants Ethical? [Size: 70.2 kB; Format: MS Powerpoint]

USMLE Step 2 CS Videos

1. Video of Cardiology Examination in a Clinical Setting
2. Video of Neurology Examination in a Clinical Setting
3. Video of Pulmonology Examination in a Clinical Setting
4. Video of Musculoskeletal Examination in a Clinical Setting
5. Video of Abdominal Examination in a Clinical Setting
6. Video of HEENT Examination in a Clinical Setting
7. Video and Description of Rinne Hearing Test
8. Video and Description of Weber Hearing Test

USMLE Laboratory (lab) Values

1. USMLE Blood Lab Values
2. USMLE Cerebrospinal Lab Values
3. USMLE Hematologic Lab Values
4. USMLE Sweat and Urine Lab Values

Medical Images

Useful Medical Images & Diagrams (link opens in a new window)

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