Notes on the Endocrine Pancreas

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Pancreatic cells:

Delta:

• Somatostatin.

Alpha:

• Glucagon.

Beta:

• Insulin and C peptide.

Insulin Functions:

• Released after meals.

• Peripheral uptake of glucose.

• Released after high carbohydrate or protein-containing meal.

• Increases glycogen synthesis in muscle and liver.

• Increases protein synthesis.

• Decreases triglyceride breakdown by decreasing lipase activity (lipase activated by stress hormones).

• Pumps K+ into cells; used to treat acne and hyperkalemia.

• Also accompanying naturally secreted insulin is pancreatic C peptide.

• Note: pancreatic C peptide does not accompany artificially injected insulin and this is how natural insulin is differentiated from artificially injected insulin.

Inhibitors of insulin secretion:

• Somatostatin, NE.

Stimulants of insulin secretion:

• Glucose, amino acids, GIP, glucagon.

Diabetes mellitus:

Type II:

• Obese, older, insulin resistance. Treatment is controlled diet and weight-loss.

Type I:

• Lean, young, absence of insulin production.

Glucagon and actions:

• Released during starvation or fasting.

• Peptide hormone that stimulates glucose production.

• Secreted by pancreatic islets.

• Acts on hepatocytes.

Glucagon Increases:

• Glycogenolysis, gluconeogenesis, ketogenesis, ureagenesis, insulin secretion, lipolysis.

Glucagon Decreases:

• Lipogenesis.

Glucagon Secretion Inhibited By:

• Hyperglycemia, insulin, somatostatin.

Glucagon Secretion Promoted By:

• Hypoglycemia, amino acids.

Additional Readings:

Basic Endocrinology

1. Introduction to Endocrinology
2. Hypothalamic-pituitary system
3. Adrenal Hormones
4. Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH) and ECF Regulation
5. Endocrine Pancreas
6. Growth Hormone
7. Adrenal Medulla
8. Hormonal Control of Calcium and Phosphate
9. Thyroid Hormones
10. Hormones of Male Reproduction
11. Hormones of Female Reproduction
12. Fluid Compartments of the Body
13. Notes on Hypothalamus Anterior Pituitary and Thyroid
14. Additional Notes on Female Reproduction
15. Hormonal Signaling Pathways
16. FAQ on Adrenal Hormones
17. FAQ on Male Reproduction
18. Synthesis and Deficiencies of Adrenal Hormones
19. Significance of Glycosylated Hemoblogin (HbA1c)
20. Significance of Measuring Albumin while with Calcium Levels
21. Stepwise Approach to Treatment of Ascites
22. How to differentiate between Diabetes Insipidus vs Psychogenic Polydipsia

Related Topics

1. Histology of the Endocrine System
2. Histology of the Male Reproductive System
3. Histology of the Female Reproductive System

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