Random USMLE Facts volume 5-5

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Random USMLE Facts volume 5-5:

USMLE Facts 1 USMLE Facts 2 USMLE Facts 3 USMLE Facts 4 USMLE Facts 5
USMLE Facts 6 USMLE Facts 7 USMLE Facts 8 USMLE Facts 9 USMLE Facts 10

What happens with nitrate administration to target tissues?

Myosin dephosphorylation; nitrate drugs mimic the action of nitric oxide, increasing cGMP.

What are some findings in bladder carcinoma?

Painless bleeding and involvement of the muscular layer (tumor penetration of the bladder wall) is a major determinant of malignancy.

NOTE: cardiac ventricular hypertrophy and over load causes release of ANP.

How is aminoglycoside resistance achieved by bacteria?

Altered structure of bacterial ribosomal proteins.

What are gastric erosions and how are they caused?

Gastric erosions are defects in the gastric mucosal membrane that do not cross the muscularis mucosa. Most common cause may include H. pylori infection followed by aspirin (NSAID) usage.

What are some findings in tetrahydrobiopterin deficiency?

Findings in tetrahydrobiopterin deficiency include neurological abnormalties. Some neurotransmitters like serotonin, tyrosine, nitric oxide, and dopa are deficient in infants.

Definitions:

• Reassortment: occurs when there is exchange of genomic segments between two segmented viruses.
• Transformation: uptake of naked DNA from the surrounding.
• Phenotypic mixing: two viruses infect an individual, and a new virus is created that contains nucleocapsid proteins from one strain and the genome of the other strain.
• Recombination: two viral strains combine to produce a completely new strain.

What is pleuritic chest (lung) pain?

Pleuritic chest pain occurs from inflammation of the pleura. There are two types of pleura - visceral and parietal. Sensory innervation of the parietal pleura is achieved by the phrenic nerve and the intercostal nerves.

Types of schizophrenia:

• Paranoid schizophrenia: suspicion, distrust, tensed, guarded, hostile.
• Catatonic schizophrenia: disturbed motor function.
• Residual schizophrenia: emotional blunting, eccentric, "burnt out."
• Undifferentiated schizophrenia: do not fall into any other categories.
• Disorganized schizophrenia: disorganized speech and behavior.

Name an oral hypoglycemic agent and mechanism of action:

A sulfonylurea - glyburide - increases the rate of endogenous insulin secretion by residual pancreatic islet beta-cells in patients with Type II diabetes.

What are the three types of rejection reactions?

See: Notes on Immunopathology

What are the different types of bias?

• Detection bias: more information is obtained from the experimental group than control group.
• Allocation bias: subjects are assigned to study groups in a non-random fashion.
• Selection bias: subjects are allocated into study groups without regards to individual characteristics that might influence the outcome.

What is the indicator of severity of mitral stenosis?

The best indicator of severity of mitral stenosis is the time interval between S2 heart sound and the opening snap.

Cytotoxic CD8+ lymphocytes recognize foreign proteins on epithelial cell surfaces of what cells?

MHC class I heavy chain and beta 2 - microglobulin.

What causes wall of the right ventricle to become thick?

Pulmonary hypertension.

What is cerebral amyloid angiopathy?

Cerebral amyloid angiopathy causes recurrent lobar hemorrhages in the elderly. Beta-amyloid is deposited in the arterial wall causing vessel wall weakness and predisposition to rupture. One complication of cerebral amyloid angiopathy is recurrent hemorrhagic stroke.

USMLE Facts 1 USMLE Facts 2 USMLE Facts 3 USMLE Facts 4 USMLE Facts 5
USMLE Facts 6 USMLE Facts 7 USMLE Facts 8 USMLE Facts 9 USMLE Facts 10

Additional Readings:

Random USMLE Facts

1. Random USMLE Facts volume 1-1
2. Random USMLE Facts volume 2-1
3. Random USMLE Facts volume 3-1
4. Random USMLE Facts volume 4-1
5. Random USMLE Facts volume 5-1
6. Random USMLE Facts volume 6-1
7. Random USMLE Facts volume 7-1
8. Random USMLE Facts volume 8-1
9. Random USMLE Facts volume 9-1
10. Random USMLE Facts volume 10-1
11. Random USMLE Facts volume 11-1
12. Random USMLE Facts volume 12-1

General and Systemic Examinations

1. General Examination for Internal Medicine
2. Jugular Venous Distention Workup
3. ER Chest Pain Workup
4. Format for Patient Presentation
5. Pulmonary Examination for Internal Medicine
6. Cardiac Examination for Internal Medicine
7. Abdominal Examination for Internal Medicine
8. Cranial Nerve Reflexes
9. Motor System Examination
10. Random Sensory System Facts
11. Random Stroke Facts

Medical Files & Presentations

1. USMLE Flashcards [Size: 1.9 MB; Format: MS Powerpoint]
2. Otitis Media in Children [Size: 5.4 MB; Format: MS Powerpoint]
3. Irritable Bowel Syndrome [Size: 170 kB; Format: MS Powerpoint]
4. Acid-Base Disturbance: Acidotic or Alkalotic? [Size: 427 kB; Format: PDF]
5. Thrombocytopenia [Size: 2.42 MB; Format: MS Powerpoint]
6. Are Face Transplants Ethical? [Size: 70.2 kB; Format: MS Powerpoint]

USMLE Step 2 CS Videos

1. Video of Cardiology Examination in a Clinical Setting
2. Video of Neurology Examination in a Clinical Setting
3. Video of Pulmonology Examination in a Clinical Setting
4. Video of Musculoskeletal Examination in a Clinical Setting
5. Video of Abdominal Examination in a Clinical Setting
6. Video of HEENT Examination in a Clinical Setting
7. Video and Description of Rinne Hearing Test
8. Video and Description of Weber Hearing Test

USMLE Laboratory (lab) Values

1. USMLE Blood Lab Values
2. USMLE Cerebrospinal Lab Values
3. USMLE Hematologic Lab Values
4. USMLE Sweat and Urine Lab Values

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Useful Medical Images & Diagrams (link opens in a new window)

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