Random USMLE Facts volume 7-10

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Random USMLE Facts volume 7-10:

USMLE Facts 1 USMLE Facts 2 USMLE Facts 3 USMLE Facts 4 USMLE Facts 5
USMLE Facts 6 USMLE Facts 7 USMLE Facts 8 USMLE Facts 9 USMLE Facts 10

What is the outcome of vertical hepatitis B infection from mother to child?

High risk of chronic infection (90%); high viral replication rate; mild damage to liver. Findings in neonates include HBsAg- and HBeAg-.

What process can exacerbate Wernicke's encephalopathy?

Rapid glucose infusion.

In what layer does fluid accumulate in hydrocele?

Tunica vaginalis.

What is chromogranin?

It is a tumor marker for small cell lung carcinoma. Other markers for small cell lung carcinoma are enolase and synaptophysin.

When is S3 gallop heard?

Mitral regurgitation. Holosystolic murmur is also heard over the cardiac apex. Mitral regurgitation is most commonly caused by mitral valve prolapse (myxomatous degeneration of mitral valve).

Metabolic disorders:

• Argininosuccinate synthetase deficiency: citrullinemia.
• Methylmalonate mutase deficiency: methylmalonic aciduria.
• Orotate phosphoribosyl transferase deficiency: orotic aciduria.
• Lipoic acid deficiency: causes lactic acidosis.

What is the best way to confirm menopause?

Serum FSH levels.

What is the treatment regimen for status epilepticus?

Lorazepam followed by phenytoin. If seizures still do not stop, phenobarbital is administered.

What does the heart of a patient suffering from CHF look like?

Enlarged heart, especially along the long (vertical) axis.

How is isoniazid metabolized?

Acetylation.

What is the relation between isoniazid and intracellular catalase-peroxidase?

Isoniazid needs intracellular catalase-peroxidase to become activated against M. tuberculosis infection.

What is a typical sympathetic output system?

• Sympathetic output to the viscera is formed of two neuron units - preganglionic and postganglionic.
• Preganglionic neurons contain ACh and stimulate nicotinic cholinergic receptors on the postganglionic neuron.
Postganglionic neurons, in turn, release norepinephrine into the synaptic cleft of target organs. However, the sweat glands and the adrenals are directly stimulated by the preganglionic neurons using ACh.

What is the mechanism behind paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria?

Complement activation and attack on RBCs.

Why do patients with Crohn's disease develop gallstones?

Since the terminal ileum is affected, there is decreased bile acid absorption (hence, increased biliary acid wasting), causing cholesterol precipitation, which results in gallstones.

NOTE: azoles inhibit liver cytochrome P450-dependent metabolism of several drugs.

What separates direct and indirect inguinal hernia?

Inferior epigastric vessels.

What are the findings in medullary sponge kidney?

Painless hematuria together with multiple cystic dilations of the medullary collecting ducts in otherwise normal kidneys. One complication is the occurrence of kidney stones.

What are the findings in Meniere's disease?

Tinnitus, vertigo, and hearing loss. This occurs due to increased volume of endolymph in the inner era due to defective reabsorption of endolymph.

USMLE Facts 1 USMLE Facts 2 USMLE Facts 3 USMLE Facts 4 USMLE Facts 5
USMLE Facts 6 USMLE Facts 7 USMLE Facts 8 USMLE Facts 9 USMLE Facts 10

Additional Readings:

Random USMLE Facts

1. Random USMLE Facts volume 1-1
2. Random USMLE Facts volume 2-1
3. Random USMLE Facts volume 3-1
4. Random USMLE Facts volume 4-1
5. Random USMLE Facts volume 5-1
6. Random USMLE Facts volume 6-1
7. Random USMLE Facts volume 7-1
8. Random USMLE Facts volume 8-1
9. Random USMLE Facts volume 9-1
10. Random USMLE Facts volume 10-1
11. Random USMLE Facts volume 11-1
12. Random USMLE Facts volume 12-1

General and Systemic Examinations

1. General Examination for Internal Medicine
2. Jugular Venous Distention Workup
3. ER Chest Pain Workup
4. Format for Patient Presentation
5. Pulmonary Examination for Internal Medicine
6. Cardiac Examination for Internal Medicine
7. Abdominal Examination for Internal Medicine
8. Cranial Nerve Reflexes
9. Motor System Examination
10. Random Sensory System Facts
11. Random Stroke Facts

Medical Files & Presentations

1. USMLE Flashcards [Size: 1.9 MB; Format: MS Powerpoint]
2. Otitis Media in Children [Size: 5.4 MB; Format: MS Powerpoint]
3. Irritable Bowel Syndrome [Size: 170 kB; Format: MS Powerpoint]
4. Acid-Base Disturbance: Acidotic or Alkalotic? [Size: 427 kB; Format: PDF]
5. Thrombocytopenia [Size: 2.42 MB; Format: MS Powerpoint]
6. Are Face Transplants Ethical? [Size: 70.2 kB; Format: MS Powerpoint]

USMLE Step 2 CS Videos

1. Video of Cardiology Examination in a Clinical Setting
2. Video of Neurology Examination in a Clinical Setting
3. Video of Pulmonology Examination in a Clinical Setting
4. Video of Musculoskeletal Examination in a Clinical Setting
5. Video of Abdominal Examination in a Clinical Setting
6. Video of HEENT Examination in a Clinical Setting
7. Video and Description of Rinne Hearing Test
8. Video and Description of Weber Hearing Test

USMLE Laboratory (lab) Values

1. USMLE Blood Lab Values
2. USMLE Cerebrospinal Lab Values
3. USMLE Hematologic Lab Values
4. USMLE Sweat and Urine Lab Values

Medical Images

Useful Medical Images & Diagrams (link opens in a new window)

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