Random USMLE Facts volume 7-8

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Random USMLE Facts volume 7-8:

USMLE Facts 1 USMLE Facts 2 USMLE Facts 3 USMLE Facts 4 USMLE Facts 5
USMLE Facts 6 USMLE Facts 7 USMLE Facts 8 USMLE Facts 9 USMLE Facts 10

What is the mechanism of action and usage of cilostazol?

Cilostazol is used for peripheral artery disease; it dilates arteries and inhibits platelet aggregation.

What kind of diarrhea is produced by magnesium hydroxide administration?

Osmotic diarrhea; note that lactase deficiency also produces osmotic diarrhea.

What is the mechanism of action of nitroglycerine?

Venodilator (large veins); used in angina.

What are the findings in digitalis (digoxin) toxicity?

Fatigue, blurry vision, changes in color perception, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, confusion, and delirium. Cardiac abnormalities include bradycardia due to AV block, escaped beats, ventricular tachycardia, and ventricular fibrillation. One clue to digitalis toxicity is elevated plasma concentration.

What is digoxin used for?

Digoxin is a second-line treatment for atrial fibrillation, and works by inducing an AV block.

What is the usage and mechanism of thiazolidinediones?

Thiazolidinediones are used in the treatment of diabetes. Thiazolidinediones work by activating nuclear receptor (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor) PPAR-gamma, which causes increases insulin sensitivity.

What would be the best prophylaxis for pulmonary embolism due to red infarcts?

Low-dose heparin.

What are the three groups of antipsychotics?

• Typical (traditional high potency): haloperidol, fluphenazine, pimozide.
• Typical (traditional low potency): chlorpromazine, thioridazine. These are more likely to cause anticholinergic and antihistamine side effects in schizophrenia treatment.
• Atypical (second generation): clozapine, risperidone, olanzapine, quetiapine. These are used to improve both positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia.

What are the positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia?

• Positive: hallucinations, delusions, and disorganized speech and behavior.
• Negative: decreased emotional range, poverty of speech, loss of interests, and loss of drive.

What are the findings in glucagonoma?

Necrolytic migratory erythema, elevated erythematous rash, hyperglycemia, stomatitis, cheilosis, and abdominal pain.

Why do ischemic cardiac cells swell?

Ischemia results in intracellular Na+ and Ca2+, and this draws water into the cell causing mitochondrial swelling.

What are some features of T-cell ALL?

T-cell ALL: dysphagia, dyspnea, stridor. These features may not be found in B-cell ALL.

What type of gate is the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein?

ATP-gated.

What is the A-a gradient?

The A-a gradient is the difference between partial pressure of oxygen in alveoli and the partial pressure of oxygen in the arterial blood. It is calculated as PAO2 - PaO2. Normal PAO2 = 100 mmHg at sea level. PAO2 = 150 - (PaCO2/0.8).

What are the findings in pulmonary aspergillus fumigatus infection?

Transcient pulmonary infiltrates, eosinophilia, and proximal bronchiectasis. Infected patients are immuno-compromised patients or debilitated patients or patients suffering from asthma.

To prevent neonatal tetanus, what is the best time to provide vaccination to the mother?

During pregnancy.

What is the best area to harvest the great saphenous vein for CABG?

Just below the pubic tubercle.

USMLE Facts 1 USMLE Facts 2 USMLE Facts 3 USMLE Facts 4 USMLE Facts 5
USMLE Facts 6 USMLE Facts 7 USMLE Facts 8 USMLE Facts 9 USMLE Facts 10

Additional Readings:

Random USMLE Facts

1. Random USMLE Facts volume 1-1
2. Random USMLE Facts volume 2-1
3. Random USMLE Facts volume 3-1
4. Random USMLE Facts volume 4-1
5. Random USMLE Facts volume 5-1
6. Random USMLE Facts volume 6-1
7. Random USMLE Facts volume 7-1
8. Random USMLE Facts volume 8-1
9. Random USMLE Facts volume 9-1
10. Random USMLE Facts volume 10-1
11. Random USMLE Facts volume 11-1
12. Random USMLE Facts volume 12-1

General and Systemic Examinations

1. General Examination for Internal Medicine
2. Jugular Venous Distention Workup
3. ER Chest Pain Workup
4. Format for Patient Presentation
5. Pulmonary Examination for Internal Medicine
6. Cardiac Examination for Internal Medicine
7. Abdominal Examination for Internal Medicine
8. Cranial Nerve Reflexes
9. Motor System Examination
10. Random Sensory System Facts
11. Random Stroke Facts

Medical Files & Presentations

1. USMLE Flashcards [Size: 1.9 MB; Format: MS Powerpoint]
2. Otitis Media in Children [Size: 5.4 MB; Format: MS Powerpoint]
3. Irritable Bowel Syndrome [Size: 170 kB; Format: MS Powerpoint]
4. Acid-Base Disturbance: Acidotic or Alkalotic? [Size: 427 kB; Format: PDF]
5. Thrombocytopenia [Size: 2.42 MB; Format: MS Powerpoint]
6. Are Face Transplants Ethical? [Size: 70.2 kB; Format: MS Powerpoint]

USMLE Step 2 CS Videos

1. Video of Cardiology Examination in a Clinical Setting
2. Video of Neurology Examination in a Clinical Setting
3. Video of Pulmonology Examination in a Clinical Setting
4. Video of Musculoskeletal Examination in a Clinical Setting
5. Video of Abdominal Examination in a Clinical Setting
6. Video of HEENT Examination in a Clinical Setting
7. Video and Description of Rinne Hearing Test
8. Video and Description of Weber Hearing Test

USMLE Laboratory (lab) Values

1. USMLE Blood Lab Values
2. USMLE Cerebrospinal Lab Values
3. USMLE Hematologic Lab Values
4. USMLE Sweat and Urine Lab Values

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