Random USMLE Facts volume 7-7

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Random USMLE Facts volume 7-7:

USMLE Facts 1 USMLE Facts 2 USMLE Facts 3 USMLE Facts 4 USMLE Facts 5
USMLE Facts 6 USMLE Facts 7 USMLE Facts 8 USMLE Facts 9 USMLE Facts 10

In what corresponding stages are oocytes arrested in a developing female?

• Birth to puberty: prophase of meiosis I.
• Puberty to menstruation: metaphase of meiosis II.
• Menstruation to ovulation: mature oocyte + second polar body.

10 year old with abrupt onset of periorbital edema, edema, hypertension, malaise, fever, nausea, and dark urine; had had a strep throat and skin infection 2-4 weeks earlier - what is the diagnosis?

Post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis.

Massive proteinuria, hypoalbuminemia, lipiduria, and generalized edema; no RBC or RBC casts in urine - what is the diagnosis?

Nephrotic syndrome.

Where do S. viridans adhere, and how?

Fibrin-platelet aggregates by producing extracellular polysaccharides (dextrans).

Where do S. aureus adhere?

Intact endothelium.

What is the type of antibody - Rh D antibody (Anti-Rh D) - given to the mother to sensitize her against her Rh+ child?

IgG because it can very effectively clear fetal Rh(D) antigens.

What is the respiratory complication in diabetic ketoacidosis?

Rapid breathing - respiratory failure.

What is a major organ dysfunction that occurs in Fabry's disease?

Fabry's disease results from accumulation of ceramide trihexoside; renal failure and death can occur.

What happens to bone in hyperparathyroidism?

For some reason, cortical or compact bone in the appendicular skeleton is involved in hyperparathyroidism. There may be subperiosteal resorption with cystic degeneration, and salt-and-pepper appearance of the skull. Of course, there may be bones, groans, and renal stones.

What embryonic structure fails to develop in DiGeorge's syndrome?

Third pharyngeal pouch.

What part does desmopressin play in treatment of hemophilia A?

Desmopressin binds to endothelial cells and stimulates the release of factor VII, and can temporarily increase plasma factor VIII levels by 2X - 3X. Note that desmopressin is also used for diabetes insipidus treatment.

What happens in aspirin toxicity?

Respiratory alkalosis and an anion gap metabolic acidosis. After 2-3 hours, pH, PaCO2 and HCO3- values are 7.26, 20 mmHg, and 18 mEq/L respectively.

What is the pathologic mechanism of disease in Ehlers-Danlos syndrome?

The extracellular cleavage of disulfide-rich terminal extensions from the procollagen molecules is impaired step in collagen synthesis.

What are the findings in a somatostatinoma?

A somatostatinoma is a somatostatin-secreting tumor. Somatostatin suppresses the release of secretin, CCK, glucagon, insulin, and gastrin. Suppression of CCK results in biliary stones, steatorrhea, hyper- or hypoglycemia.

How is insulin secretion regulated from a pancreatic beta cell?

• Glucose stimulates insulin release by entering beta cells through GLUT-2.
• Glucose then undergoes sequential oxidative metabolism through glycolysis and CAC resulting in ATP generation.
• High ATP causes closure of potassium cells causing opening of voltage-gated calcium channels and insulin release.

What is Jervell and Lange-Nielsen syndrome?

Jervell and Lange-Nielsen syndrome is one of the most common causes of congenital-QT syndromes. This is autosomal recessive condition accompanied by congenital neurosensory deafness. Sudden cardiac death can occur from torsades de pointes.

Why does M. pneumoniae cause hemolysis?

Due to similar antigenic structure between antigens on cell membrane of M. pneumoniae and cell membrane of erythrocytes. M. pneumoniae can also cause Stevens-Johnson syndrome.

USMLE Facts 1 USMLE Facts 2 USMLE Facts 3 USMLE Facts 4 USMLE Facts 5
USMLE Facts 6 USMLE Facts 7 USMLE Facts 8 USMLE Facts 9 USMLE Facts 10

Additional Readings:

Random USMLE Facts

1. Random USMLE Facts volume 1-1
2. Random USMLE Facts volume 2-1
3. Random USMLE Facts volume 3-1
4. Random USMLE Facts volume 4-1
5. Random USMLE Facts volume 5-1
6. Random USMLE Facts volume 6-1
7. Random USMLE Facts volume 7-1
8. Random USMLE Facts volume 8-1
9. Random USMLE Facts volume 9-1
10. Random USMLE Facts volume 10-1
11. Random USMLE Facts volume 11-1
12. Random USMLE Facts volume 12-1

General and Systemic Examinations

1. General Examination for Internal Medicine
2. Jugular Venous Distention Workup
3. ER Chest Pain Workup
4. Format for Patient Presentation
5. Pulmonary Examination for Internal Medicine
6. Cardiac Examination for Internal Medicine
7. Abdominal Examination for Internal Medicine
8. Cranial Nerve Reflexes
9. Motor System Examination
10. Random Sensory System Facts
11. Random Stroke Facts

Medical Files & Presentations

1. USMLE Flashcards [Size: 1.9 MB; Format: MS Powerpoint]
2. Otitis Media in Children [Size: 5.4 MB; Format: MS Powerpoint]
3. Irritable Bowel Syndrome [Size: 170 kB; Format: MS Powerpoint]
4. Acid-Base Disturbance: Acidotic or Alkalotic? [Size: 427 kB; Format: PDF]
5. Thrombocytopenia [Size: 2.42 MB; Format: MS Powerpoint]
6. Are Face Transplants Ethical? [Size: 70.2 kB; Format: MS Powerpoint]

USMLE Step 2 CS Videos

1. Video of Cardiology Examination in a Clinical Setting
2. Video of Neurology Examination in a Clinical Setting
3. Video of Pulmonology Examination in a Clinical Setting
4. Video of Musculoskeletal Examination in a Clinical Setting
5. Video of Abdominal Examination in a Clinical Setting
6. Video of HEENT Examination in a Clinical Setting
7. Video and Description of Rinne Hearing Test
8. Video and Description of Weber Hearing Test

USMLE Laboratory (lab) Values

1. USMLE Blood Lab Values
2. USMLE Cerebrospinal Lab Values
3. USMLE Hematologic Lab Values
4. USMLE Sweat and Urine Lab Values

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