Notes on Adrenal Medulla

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Adrenal Medulla:

• 80% epinephrine / adrenaline.

• 20% norepinephrine.

• Not an important source of NE.

• Not essential for life.

• Norepinephrine function: vasoconstriction; maintains normal BP when individual is standing.

• Epinephrine secretion increases in: exercise, emergencies, cold, hypoglycemia.

Epinephrine Causes:

• Breakdown and mobilization of carbohydrates.

• Increased BMR.

• Promotes glycogenolysis (conversion of glycogen to glucose).

Epinephrine and Beta-Adrenergic Receptors:

• Increased glycogenolysis and lipolysis.

Pheochromocytomas:

• Release NE.

• Cause hypertension, hyperglycemia, glucosuria, increased BMR.

Additional Readings:

Basic Endocrinology

1. Introduction to Endocrinology
2. Hypothalamic-pituitary system
3. Adrenal Hormones
4. Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH) and ECF Regulation
5. Endocrine Pancreas
6. Growth Hormone
7. Adrenal Medulla
8. Hormonal Control of Calcium and Phosphate
9. Thyroid Hormones
10. Hormones of Male Reproduction
11. Hormones of Female Reproduction
12. Fluid Compartments of the Body
13. Notes on Hypothalamus Anterior Pituitary and Thyroid
14. Additional Notes on Female Reproduction
15. Hormonal Signaling Pathways
16. FAQ on Adrenal Hormones
17. FAQ on Male Reproduction
18. Synthesis and Deficiencies of Adrenal Hormones
19. Significance of Glycosylated Hemoblogin (HbA1c)
20. Significance of Measuring Albumin while with Calcium Levels
21. Stepwise Approach to Treatment of Ascites
22. How to differentiate between Diabetes Insipidus vs Psychogenic Polydipsia

Related Topics

1. Histology of the Endocrine System
2. Histology of the Male Reproductive System
3. Histology of the Female Reproductive System

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