Notes on Lower Limb

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Nerves of the Lower Limb:

Femoral nerve:

Extend knee; sensory loss on anterior thigh, medial leg and foot; weak hip flexion, loss of knee extension.

Obturator nerve:

Adduct thigh; medially rotate thigh; sensory loss on medical thigh.

Tibial nerve:

Flex knee; extend knee; plantar flex foot; flex digits; inversion.

Common peroneal (fibular) nerve:

Flex knee; foot drop.

Superficial peroneal (fibular) nerve:

Eversion; dorsal foot sensory loss except first web space.

Deep peroneal (fibular) nerve:

Dorsiflex foot; extend digits; inversion; foot drop; sensory loss on anterolateral leg and dorsum of foot.

Superior gluteal nerve:

Stabilize pelvis; Trendelenburg gait.

Inferior gluteal nerve:

Extension of hip; lateral thigh rotation; can't rise from sitting position; can't climb stirs.

Sciatic nerve:

Weakened extension of thigh; no knee extension; no function below knee.

Arteries of the Lower Limb:

• External iliac artery, femoral artery, poplitealartery, anterior tibial artery, posterior tibial artery, obturator artery.

Blood Supply of Femur:

Medial femoral circumflex artery.

Knee joint:

• Strengthened medially and laterally by the medial and lateral collateral ligaments, respectively.

• Strengthened anteriorly and posteriorly by the anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments, respectively.

• Triad knee injury: medical collateral ligament, medical meniscus, and anterior cruciate ligaments.

Ankle joint:

• Medical collateral (deltiod) ligament and lateral collateral ligament injured in eversion and inversion ankle injuries, respectively.

Additional Notes:

• Spasm of peroneus (fibularis) longus spasm: pes planus (flat feet; eg., from playing too much soccer).

• M. peroneus longus: planter flexion and eversion.

• Feel pulse at: dorsal aspects of feet lateral to extensor hallucis longus tendons.

Additional Reading:

Histology and Cytology

1. Cell Components
2. Nervous Tissue
3. Muscle Tissue
4. Lymphoid Tissue
5. Integument
6. Respiratory System
7. Gastrointestinal System
8. Renal/Urinary System
9. Male Reproductive System
10. Female Reproductive System

Gross Anatomy

1. Back and Nervous System
2. Thorax
3. Abdomen, Pelvis, and Perineum
4. Upper Limb
5. Lower Limb
6. Head and Neck
7. Chest Wall
8. Shoulder

Anatomy Videos

1. Video of Musculoskeletal Examination in a Clinical Setting
1. Video of HEENT Examination in a Clinical Setting

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