Notes on Integument

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Skin layers:

Remember layers as: "Cats Love Gooey Smelly Birds"

Stratum corneum:

• Anucleated, cornified/keratinized cells.

Stratum lucidum:

• Eosinophilic or anucleated cells; found in areas of thick corneum.

Stratum granulosum:

• Basophilic keratohyalin granules.

Stratum spinosum:

• Multilaminar cuboid-like cells.

Stratum basale:

• Contain keratin.

Cell Types:


Provide barrier.


Melanin production.





Sweat Glands:

• Eccrine glands found everywhere; watery discharge; cholinergic innervation.

• Apocrine glands found in axillary, areolar and anal regions; thick, viscous discharge; adrenergic innervation.


Melanocytes are unable to synthesize melanin.


Melanocytes are destroyed.

Bullous pemphigoid:

Autoimmune blistering of dermis-epidermis junction.

Additional Notes:

• Keratin formation: stratum granulosum.

• Intercellular bridges: stratum spinosum.

• Papillae connect epidermis to dermis.

• Keratinocytes of epidermis derived from surface ectoderm.

• Dermis thickest at: upper portion of back.

• Hair grows from bulb.

• Abnormal keratin filaments: abnormal skin.

• Melanocytes present in matrix cells of hair follicles.

• Tight junction / zona occludens: glands; only columnar cells.

• Gap junction: heart, bones.

• Hemidesmosomes: basal lamina.

• Intermediate filaments / zona adherens: cells stick together (reinforcement).

• Desmosomes / macula adherens: bind cells together (main).

Additional Reading:

Histology and Cytology

1. Cell Components
2. Nervous Tissue
3. Muscle Tissue
4. Lymphoid Tissue
5. Integument
6. Respiratory System
7. Gastrointestinal System
8. Renal/Urinary System
9. Male Reproductive System
10. Female Reproductive System

Gross Anatomy

1. Back and Nervous System
2. Thorax
3. Abdomen, Pelvis, and Perineum
4. Upper Limb
5. Lower Limb
6. Head and Neck
7. Chest Wall
8. Shoulder

Anatomy Videos

1. Video of Musculoskeletal Examination in a Clinical Setting
1. Video of HEENT Examination in a Clinical Setting

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1. Jugular Venous Distention Workup

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