Notes on Basal Ganglia

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Thalamus:

• Sensory relay for ascending tactile, visual, auditory, and gustatory information.

Basal Ganglia:

• Gross control over skeletal muscle movements.

Direct basal ganglia pathway:

• Increased level of cortical excitation and promotion of movement.

Indirect basal ganglia pathway:

• Decreased level of cortical excitation.

Lesions of direct basal ganglia pathway:

• Underactive motor cortex.

• Parkinson disease.

• Disinhibition decreases activity.

• Involves substantia nigra / pars compacta.

Lesions of indirect basal ganglia pathway:

• Overactive motor cortex.

• Huntington chorea.

• Disinhibition increases activity.

• Involves Globus Pallidus / external segment.

• Involves subthalamic nucleus.

Additional Readings:

Basic Neurology

1. Peripheral Nervous System
2. Central Nervous System
3. The Ventricular System
4. The Spinal Cord
5. The Brain Stem
6. The Cerebellum
7. Visual Pathways
8. Diencephalon
9. Basal Ganglia
10. Cerebral Cortex
11. Sleep Disorders
12. Autonomic Nervous System
13. Cranial Nerves and Parasympathetic Ganglia
14. Cells of the Nervous System
15. Cerebrospinal fluid
16. Additional short notes on Cerebrum
17. Functions and Diseases of Cerebrum
18. Subcortical Grey Matter
19. Notes on The Spinal Cord
20. Regulation of Heart Rate by Autonomic Nervous System
21. Action Potentials, Axon Conduction, and Neuromuscular Junction
22. Types of Seizures
23. What is a Cough Reflex?
24. Notes on Congenital Prosopagnosia
25. Findings in Parkinson's Disease
26. Types of Heat Strokes
27. Types of Strokes
28. What is Benign Intracranial Hypertension?
29. What is Cauda Equina Syndrome?
30. Cranial Nerve Locations in Brain Stem

Neurology Videos

1. Video of Neurology Examination in a Clinical Setting

Medical Images

Useful Medical Images & Diagrams (link opens in a new window)

Related Topics

1. Nervous System Disorders
2. Histology of Nervous Tissue
3. Cranial Nerve Reflexes
4. Motor System Examination

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