Notes on Sleep Disorders

  >   Rahul's Noteblog   >   Notes on Neurology   >   Notes on Sleep Disorders

NREM and REM

NREM:

• Stages 1, 2, 3, 4; 3, 4 are delta sleep; idle brain in active body. First half of the night.

REM:

• Active brain in paralyzed body; regulated by pons. Last half of the night.

Sleep Stages:

sleep stages

Sleep Cycle Regulation:

• Sleep cycle regulated by: superchiasmatic nucleus (SCN).

Effects of Sleep Deprivation:

• Greatly affects cerebral cortex.

• Rest of body is unaffected.

• Lymphocyte levels decline and cortisol levels rise.

• Learning complex tasks becomes difficult.

REM:

• Memory consolidation by hippocampus.

Neurotransmitters of Sleep:

• Increased GH, prolactin, and serotonin; decreased dopamine and TSH.

• Delta sleep increases after exercise.

Melatonin

• Induces feelings of sleepiness.

• Causes eye-sensitivity to light.

• Circadian rhythm.

• Causes jet lag.

Sleep disorders:

Narcolepsy:

• Excessive daytime sleepiness; REM disorder; earlier REM onset; deficiency of hypocretin protein (orexin) transport; treatment: CNS stimulants and tricyclic antidepressants.

Sleep apnea:

• Absent breathing during sleep.

• Treatment: weight loss, respiratory stimulants, continuous + airway pressure (CPAP).

SIDS:

• Unexplained death of children less than 1 year old.

• Baby placed on chest.

Insomnia:

• Poor sleep cycle.

• Treatment: triazolam (halcion), zelpidem, nonbenzodiazepine.

Night terrors:

• Occur in NREM.

• Not recalled on awakening.

Nightmares:

• Occur in REM.

• Recalled on awakening.

Enuresis:

• Bedwetting; treat with imipramine.

Sleep-related Neurotransmitters:

Serotonin:

• Initiates sleep.

ACh:

• High in REM; erections.

NE:

• Low in REM.

Dopamine:

• Rises with waking.

Additional Readings:

Basic Neurology

1. Peripheral Nervous System
2. Central Nervous System
3. The Ventricular System
4. The Spinal Cord
5. The Brain Stem
6. The Cerebellum
7. Visual Pathways
8. Diencephalon
9. Basal Ganglia
10. Cerebral Cortex
11. Sleep Disorders
12. Autonomic Nervous System
13. Cranial Nerves and Parasympathetic Ganglia
14. Cells of the Nervous System
15. Cerebrospinal fluid
16. Additional short notes on Cerebrum
17. Functions and Diseases of Cerebrum
18. Subcortical Grey Matter
19. Notes on The Spinal Cord
20. Regulation of Heart Rate by Autonomic Nervous System
21. Action Potentials, Axon Conduction, and Neuromuscular Junction
22. Types of Seizures
23. What is a Cough Reflex?
24. Notes on Congenital Prosopagnosia
25. Findings in Parkinson's Disease
26. Types of Heat Strokes
27. Types of Strokes
28. What is Benign Intracranial Hypertension?
29. What is Cauda Equina Syndrome?
30. Cranial Nerve Locations in Brain Stem
31. What is a Cluster Headache?
32. What is a Subarachnoid Hemorrhage?
33. What is a Tension Headache?

Neurology Videos

1. Video of Neurology Examination in a Clinical Setting

Medical Images

Useful Medical Images & Diagrams (link opens in a new window)

Related Topics

1. Nervous System Disorders
2. Histology of Nervous Tissue
3. Cranial Nerve Reflexes
4. Motor System Examination

Random Pages:

My Experience during the Iraqi Invasion of Kuwait Pictures of old Kuwaiti Dinars
Signs you`re being married to for Green Card Notes on Cell Components
Notes on Abdomen, Pelvis, and Perineum Notes on Chlamydia
Notes on Lipid Mobilization and Catabolism How to Reduce Blood Pressure without Medications?
Effects of Drugs on Fetal Development Digestion FAQ, Defecation reflex, etc.
Notes on Basic Gastrointestinal Physiology Voices from Hell: My Experience in Mussoorie, India
How To Optimize Your Web Server What is an ELEK`s Test?
Why did I decide to become a doctor? Medical School Admissions Essay Video: Titanic Piano Theme: The Portrait
Corporate Failure: The Enron Case My Experience during the Iraqi Invasion of Kuwait
USMLE Blood Lab Values Regulation of Heart Rate by Autonomic Nervous System
Images of Antibodies Signs you`re being married to for Green Card
Notes on Respiratory System Differentiation and Anatomy of a Blastocyst
Notes on Cell Components Notes on Nervous Tissue
Voices from Hell: My Experience in Mussoorie, India Video of Cardiology Examination in a Clinical Setting

Please Do Not Reproduce This Page

This page is written by Rahul Gladwin. Please do not duplicate the contents of this page in whole or part, in any form, without prior written permission.