Notes on Ventricular System

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CSF Facts:

• Protection of brain.

• Produced by choroid plexus.

Hydrocephalus:

Communicating hydrocephalus:

• Overproduction of CSF.

Noncommunicating hydrocephalus:

• Blocked CSF flow.

Normal Pressure hydrocephalus:

• CSF not absorbed by arachnoid villi; enlarged ventricles.

Ventricles:

Two lateral

• Located deep within cerebral hemispheres.

Third

• Located in midline within diencephalon.

Fourth

• Located between dorsal surfaces of pons and upper medulla, and ventral surface of cerebellum.

Communucations:

• [Lateral] - interventricular foramen (foramen of Monro) - [third] - interventricular foramen (foramen of Monro) - [Lateral.]

• [Third] - cerebral aqueduct (of Sylvius) - [fourth.]

CSF Composition:

• 70% secreted by choroid; 30% is by metabolic water production.

Subarachnoid Space Location:

• Subarachnoid space lies outside CNS.

CSF Flow through Subarachnoid Space:

• CSF exits CNS (to flow into the subarachnoid space) through three openings in fourth ventricle:

• Two lateral foramina of Luschka.

• Medical foramen of Magendie.

• Then, CSF flows around brain and spinal cord; returns to venous system through superior sagittal dural venous sinus.

Choroid Plexus Papilloma:

• CSF oversecretion.

Meningitis:

• Limits absorption in superior sagittal dural venous sinus.

Enlarged Ventricles:

• Press cortex against the skull.

Unusual Cells in CSF:

RBCs in CSF:

• Trauma.

Protein in CSF:

• CNS tumor.

Blood-brain barrier:

• Formed by capillary endothelium connected by tight junctions; maintained by astrocytes.

• Free diffusion: water.

• Carrier-mediated diffusion: glucose.

Blood-CSF barrier:

• Formed by epithelial cells of choroid plexus.

• Similar transport mechanisms to blood-brain barrier.

Additional Readings:

Basic Neurology

1. Peripheral Nervous System
2. Central Nervous System
3. The Ventricular System
4. The Spinal Cord
5. The Brain Stem
6. The Cerebellum
7. Visual Pathways
8. Diencephalon
9. Basal Ganglia
10. Cerebral Cortex
11. Sleep Disorders
12. Autonomic Nervous System
13. Cranial Nerves and Parasympathetic Ganglia
14. Cells of the Nervous System
15. Cerebrospinal fluid
16. Additional short notes on Cerebrum
17. Functions and Diseases of Cerebrum
18. Subcortical Grey Matter
19. Notes on The Spinal Cord
20. Regulation of Heart Rate by Autonomic Nervous System
21. Action Potentials, Axon Conduction, and Neuromuscular Junction
22. Types of Seizures
23. What is a Cough Reflex?
24. Notes on Congenital Prosopagnosia
25. Findings in Parkinson's Disease
26. Types of Heat Strokes
27. Types of Strokes
28. What is Benign Intracranial Hypertension?
29. What is Cauda Equina Syndrome?
30. Cranial Nerve Locations in Brain Stem

Neurology Videos

1. Video of Neurology Examination in a Clinical Setting

Medical Images

Useful Medical Images & Diagrams (link opens in a new window)

Related Topics

1. Nervous System Disorders
2. Histology of Nervous Tissue
3. Cranial Nerve Reflexes
4. Motor System Examination

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