Transcription and RNA Processing

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• Most abundant; structural roles; create ribosomes.


• Carries AAs to ribosome for translation.


• Alerts ribosome to protein AA sequence.

RNA Pols:

RNA pol I:

• Located in nucleolus; makes 28S, 18S, and 5.8S rRNAs.

RNA pol II:

• Located in nucleoplasm; makes hnRNA/mRNA, and some snRNA.

RNA pol III:

• Located in nucleoplasm; makes tRNA, some snRNA, and 5S rRNA.

Initiation of Eukaryotic mRNA Transcription:

• Transcription begins right after promoter (-25) TATA and (-70) CAAT.

• Transcription factors bind promoter and begin transcription.

Posttranslational Modification of Eukaryotic mRNA:

• Nucleus: 5' cap (7-methylguanosine) and 3' tail (poly-A sequence).

Additional Notes:

• DNase used in cystic fibrosis: decrease viscosity of airway secretions.

• Robertsonian translocations: don't follow Mendelian pattern.

• Housekeeping genes: always expressed without regulation.

• Effects of streptomysin on bacteria are mediated by S12 protein.

• Bacteria (MRSA) become resistant to erythromycin by acquiring a methylase-expressing plasmid.

• Acyclovir: purine analog.

Additional Readings:

Basic Biochemistry

1. Nucleic Acid Structure and Organization
2. DNA Replication and Repair
3. Transcription and RNA Processing
4. Genetic Code, Mutations, and Translation
5. Genetic Regulation
6. Recombinant DNA
7. Amino Acids, Proteins, Enzymes
8. Hormones
9. Vitamins
10. Energy Metabolism
11. Glycolysis and Pyruvate Dehydrogenase
12. Citric Acid Cycle and Oxidative Phosphorylation
13. Glycogen, Gluconeogenesis, and Hexose Monophosphate Shunt
14. Lipid Synthesis and Storage
15. Lipid Mobilization and Catabolism
16. Amino Acid Metabolism Disorders
17. Purine and Pyrimidine Metabolism
18. Electron Transport
19. Citric Acid Cycle and Glyoxylate Cycle
20. Glycolysis
21. Pyruvate Metabolism
22. Mitochondrial ATP formation
23. Gluconeogenesis
24. Glycogen Metabolism
25. Nitrogen Fixation (Metabolism) reactions, and Heme Metabolism
26. Amino Acid Metabolism
27. What is Medium Chain Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency (MCADD)?

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