Notes on Type II Hypersensitivity Reaction

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Type II Hypersensitivity Reaction Overview:

• Mediated by IgG and IgM.

• Damage caused is restricted to cells bearing Ag.

• Tissue damaged by direct action of antibody or complement dependent avtivity.

• Leads to complete complement sequence and lysis, or opsonic adherence via Fc.

• Occurs in antibody dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) reactions, transfusion reactions, organ transplants, autoimmune Type II reactions and Type II drug reactions.

• Antibody dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC): Antibodies directed by cell surface Ags cause cell death by C dependent lysis, phagocytic and non phagocytic mechanisms.

• Transfusion reactions: IgM antibody activates complement system causing RBC lysis, damaging kidneys, etc. These are caused due to difference in blood groups of people. Symptoms include fever, hypotension, nausea, vomiting, back pain, and chest pain.

ABO Blood Groups:

• RBCs are covered with A, B, A and B, and neither A nor B.

• Blood groups are controlled by 3 alleles: A, B, and O.

• A and B are dominant to O, and co-dominant to each other.

• A and B determine the presence of A and B substances, while O doesn't code for RBC ag.

• O contains glycoproteins, ie., H substance.

Rhesus Incompatibility:

• Hemolytic disease of newborn to Rh- mother and Rh+ father; child is Rh+.

• Treatment: Sensitize mother to Rh D antibody (Anti-Rh D) through blood transfusion prior to pregnancy. This destroys Rh+ antibodies from entering maternal circulation, and prevents her developing antibodies to Rh+.

• Subsequent pregnancies can be a problem because mother's RBCs pass across placenta.

Some autoimmune diseases include GOOD PASTEUR'S DISEASE and MYASTHENIA GRAVIS.

Additional Readings:

Basic Immunology

1. Introduction to Immunology
2. Cells of Immunology
3. Selection of Lymphocytes
4. Primary Response to Antigen
5. Antigen Processing and Presentation
6. Humoral Effector Mechanism Generator
7. Cell-Mediated Effector Mechanism Generator
8. Vaccination and Immunotherapy
9. Immunodeficiency Diseases
10. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
11. Hypersensitivities and Autoimmunity Diseases
12. Immunology of Transplantation
13. Immunology of Cancer
14. Immunology Laboratory Technology
15. Acquired Immunity
16. Type II Hypersensitivity Reaction
17. Hypersensitivity Reactions
18. Primary Immunodeficiency
19. Secondary Immunodeficiency
20. Type III Hypersensitivity Reaction
21. Type IV Hypersensitivity Reaction
22. Type V Hypersensitivity Reaction
23. Tumor Immunology
24. Images of Antibodies
25. Th1 vs Th2 cells

Related Topics

1. Histology of Lymphoid Tissue

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