Random USMLE Facts volume 12-5

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Random USMLE Facts volume 12-5:

USMLE Facts 1 USMLE Facts 2 USMLE Facts 3 USMLE Facts 4 USMLE Facts 5
USMLE Facts 6 USMLE Facts 7 USMLE Facts 8 USMLE Facts 9 USMLE Facts 10

What is the treatment for edema patients with a low creatinine clearance (as low as ~ 10 mL/min)?

Loop diuretics.

What is Bartter syndrome?

This disease is a form of juxtaglomerular hyperfunction; it is an autosomal recessive disease found mostly in children. The renin angiotensin aldosterone system is activated but there is angiotensin II resistance in the blood vessels. Other findings include small stature, muscle cramping and weakness, hypokalemia, and hypercalcuric metabolic alkalosis.

What are some findings in Friedreich's ataxia?

Atrophy of the spinal cord, loss of tactile discrimination and of position and vibration sensation (dorsal columns), spastic paresis (corticospinal tracts), limb dystaxia (spinocerebellar tracts). Autosomal recessive condition due to expansion of unstable triplet nucleotide repeat in the frataxin gene.

How do severe infectious processes present in neonates?

Temperature fluctuations - hypothermia or fever.

What is necrotizing enterocolitis?

Necrotizing enterocolitis is a GI emergency occurring in low-weight infants. Findings include feeding intolerance, abdominal distention, and bloody stools. There may be body temperature fluctuations.

What are the causes and findings in arteriosclerotic occlusive disease?

Arteriosclerotic occlusive disease occurs when atherosclerosis narrows the lumen of arteries. Findings include leg pain which goes away at rest, faint arterial pulse at the ankle, normal arterial oxygen content, decreased venous oxygen content, high peripheral vascular resistance, and high serum lipids.

How are granulomas formed?

Granulomas are accumulations of modified macrophages that are simulated by TH1 lymphocytes. TH1 lymphocytes secrete IL2 and INF-gamma.

What is hepatic amebiasis?

Hepatic amebiasis (amoebic dysentery) is caused by entamoeba histolytica. Findings include severe, acute right upper quadrant pain and bloody diarrhea. There may also be liver abscess and colonic ulcers.

Effect of Blood Transfusion on Heart:

blood transfusion heart

Above: A is normal and B is due to blood transfusion. Blood transfusions tend to increase the right atrial pressure, hence, cardiac output. Note that increased sympathetic activity and exercise would raise the cardiac function output curve (this stays the same in blood transfusions).

USMLE Facts 1 USMLE Facts 2 USMLE Facts 3 USMLE Facts 4 USMLE Facts 5
USMLE Facts 6 USMLE Facts 7 USMLE Facts 8 USMLE Facts 9 USMLE Facts 10

Additional Readings:

Random USMLE Facts

1. Random USMLE Facts volume 1-1
2. Random USMLE Facts volume 2-1
3. Random USMLE Facts volume 3-1
4. Random USMLE Facts volume 4-1
5. Random USMLE Facts volume 5-1
6. Random USMLE Facts volume 6-1
7. Random USMLE Facts volume 7-1
8. Random USMLE Facts volume 8-1
9. Random USMLE Facts volume 9-1
10. Random USMLE Facts volume 10-1
11. Random USMLE Facts volume 11-1
12. Random USMLE Facts volume 12-1

General and Systemic Examinations

1. General Examination for Internal Medicine
2. Jugular Venous Distention Workup
3. ER Chest Pain Workup
4. Format for Patient Presentation
5. Pulmonary Examination for Internal Medicine
6. Cardiac Examination for Internal Medicine
7. Abdominal Examination for Internal Medicine
8. Cranial Nerve Reflexes
9. Motor System Examination
10. Random Sensory System Facts
11. Random Stroke Facts

Medical Files & Presentations

1. USMLE Flashcards [Size: 1.9 MB; Format: MS Powerpoint]
2. Otitis Media in Children [Size: 5.4 MB; Format: MS Powerpoint]
3. Irritable Bowel Syndrome [Size: 170 kB; Format: MS Powerpoint]
4. Acid-Base Disturbance: Acidotic or Alkalotic? [Size: 427 kB; Format: PDF]
5. Thrombocytopenia [Size: 2.42 MB; Format: MS Powerpoint]
6. Are Face Transplants Ethical? [Size: 70.2 kB; Format: MS Powerpoint]

USMLE Step 2 CS Videos

1. Video of Cardiology Examination in a Clinical Setting
2. Video of Neurology Examination in a Clinical Setting
3. Video of Pulmonology Examination in a Clinical Setting
4. Video of Musculoskeletal Examination in a Clinical Setting
5. Video of Abdominal Examination in a Clinical Setting
6. Video of HEENT Examination in a Clinical Setting
7. Video and Description of Rinne Hearing Test
8. Video and Description of Weber Hearing Test

USMLE Laboratory (lab) Values

1. USMLE Blood Lab Values
2. USMLE Cerebrospinal Lab Values
3. USMLE Hematologic Lab Values
4. USMLE Sweat and Urine Lab Values

Medical Images

Useful Medical Images & Diagrams (link opens in a new window)

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